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(1) Blessings of surah-e-Fatiha

(2) Sifatus Salat

(3)The challenge of the Quran

(4) Saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

(5) Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S)

(6) Do souls of the Dead return back to the world ?

(7) How did Islam solve the problem of racism ?

(8) Allah is Beautiful and Loves Beauty

(9) The Conditions of Laa ilaaha illa-Allaah

(10)Omar ibn al-Khattab Journey to Islam

(11)Islam and Muslims

(12)The Two Testimonies of Faith(Shahaadataan)

(14)Ahaadeeth about the virtue of sadaqah (charity)

(15)Quran and the’ fall’ of Man

(16)Evidence 6: Miracles of Muhammad

(17)Sexual Relations Between Husband & Wife

(18)The Believers should keep their gaze lower


(20)O’Allah! The most merciful

Blessings of surah-e-Fatiha


Allah Almighty Says in the Holy Quran,.Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, The Beneficent, the Merciful: Owner of the Day of Judgemint, Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help; show us the straight path. The path of those whom Thou hast favored; not (the path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.

The name of surah-e fateha means the opening of the Scripture or Ummul quran, the essence of the Quran as it is variously named has been called the Lord ’s Prayer of the Muslims. It is a essential part of all Muslims worship, public and private, and no solemn contract or transaction is complete unless it is recited.

This surah is revealed through the saying of the believers that when they want to ask for something from their Lord, then it is the way for it. It is very blessed surah.All the greatest and noblest praise existing in the universe. Are only for Allah. Because He is the Real Master and the Betower of all things. He Provides foods to all the worlds comprising the world of Malaikah, world of Jinns, and the world of human beings. according to Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudri (R.A) there are fourty hundred worlds and Hazrat Muqatil (RA.) Narrated that there are eighty hundred worlds in the universe and our world is only one part of those.


Rub means to bring up or to nourish. Allah subhanhu wa Ta,ala starts to bring up mankind when he is in the womb of his mother, then by and by he becomes a young and strong man and then becomes old and then goes to death. During this time, Allah Subhanhu wa Ta,ala accomplishes all his needs and requirements.

The Beneficent, the Merciful, It means that ASWT is extensively Merciful to the mankind. The Holy Prophet PBUH said that ASWT divided His mercy into hundred parts. Ninety nine parts put by Him and the rest of one part inspired into the hearts of all world mothers . Due to this one part of mercy, the  mothers love their kids so much that they are ready even to sacrifice their souls for them and the remaining parts will be shown at the Day of Judgment when a large number of the believers will be entered into Paradise without any accountability and those believers having low grade of faith, will also be forgiven. Almighty Allah Says in the Holy Quran,” Say: O my slaves who have been prodigal to their own hurt! Despair not of the mercy of Allah, Who forgiveth all sins. Lo! He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.” (Az-Zumar:53)

According to the “Mufass-i-reen”) these verses have been revealed as a ‘sovereign’ remedy for a major sinner; that, all of his sins may be forgiven absolutely at once by Divine Mercy. It means that if a believer has only a few virtues in his ‘Book of deed, and a large number of sins, if he adjures and vows that he will not do so again, then it is hopped that Allah Almighty will forgive all his past sins and will award him the shelter of His endless blessings. According to the teachings of Islam, it is also a sin to become hopeless from the Mercy of Allah. Says in the Holy Qur’an,”Go, O my sons, and ascertain concerning Joseph and his brother, and despair not of the Sprit of Allah, Lo! None despaireth of the Sprit of Allah save disbelieving folk.”(Joseph: 87)

A Hadith-i- Qudsi reveals that Allah Has made a promise to the believers that His mercy will be overcome to His anger forever.(AlMishkat). Says in the Holy Qur’an,”And when those who believe in Our revelations come unto thee, say: peace be unto you! Your lord hath prescribed for Himself mercy, that, whoso of you doth evil and repenteth afterward thereof and doeth right, (for him) Lo! Allah is Forgiving Merciful”.( Cattle:54) Consider, when all the mothers can love their children due to only one part of mercy, then what is the limit of Divine mercy and  love to His creatures?

Malik-e-yaumidden,Owner of the Day of Judgment. According to the teachings of Islam, every mankind is accountable of his actions good or bad before Allah. ASBWT appointed two angels Kiraman Katebben over him to make an authentic record of his deeds. When this book of deeds will be handed over him at the Day of Judgment, he will stand of the hair on end with fear. The Holy Quran reveal about it:-

“And the Book is placed, and thou seast the guilty fearful of that which is therein, and they say, what kind of a book is this that leaveth not a small thing nor a great thing but hath counted it! And they find all that they did confronting them, and thy Lord wrongeth no one.” (The Cave:49) So, it is necessary for a man to make him ready to face that time when all his friends, parents , seeds will not support him in any way.

Iyyaka……This verse reveals that the real worship is only for Allah and to ask for help from others is unlawful…. Yes! If anyone seeks help in worldly affairs from others or he seeks the mercy of Allah by means of the sacred men like the Holy Prophets may peace and mercy of Allah be upon them and the saints, then it is lawful according to the teachings of ahle-Sunnat wal jama’at.

Ihdenasseratal……siratallzeen…….Show us the straight path, the path of those whom thou Hast favoured….. the class whom Allah Has rewarded are of four categories. Anbia ….PBUTHEM, Siddiqeen….. it means thefaithful witnesses of the truth, Saleheen… the righteous men, shuhada…. They are who bear witness of the truth or they who martyred in the way of Allah.

Ghairil maghzoob ilihim….. Not the path of those who earn thine anger nor of those who go astray…… Those who earn the anger of Allah , are the Jews and the Chirstians.Due to their transposition into the text of Taurah and the Holy Bible…. To say Aameen “ at the end of this surah is the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet PBUH and this word is not  a part of the holy Quran but out of it. The Holy Propheh PBUH said that the most excellent ziker was to say lailaha…….. and the most excellent “Dua “ was to say alhamdo ……. And saying alhamdol….fills the scale at theDay of Judgement. These are some words about tafseer and the blessings of surah fatiha. May Allah forgive us and give us taufeeq to act upon the teachings of Islam…..Aameen.



Sifatus Salat: The Method of Salat in the Light of Authentic Ahadith

Aspects of the Salat with evidences

used by the Hanafi Madhhab

Shaikh Muhammad Ilyas Faisal
Madinat al-Munawwara

* Introduction
o Why Follow and Imam?
o Difference of Opinion
o Follow One Imam Only
o Authenticity of Hadith
o The Purpose of this Book
o About this Book
* Masnoon Method of Wudu
o Masah (passing wet fingers) Over The Nape.
o Performing Masah Over Ordinary Socks
* Prescribed Times For The Five Daily Salah
o Masnoon Time For Zuhr Salaah
o Masnoon Time For `Asr
o Masnoon Time For Fajr
o Masnoon Method Of Iqamah
* Characteristics of the Salaah
o Covering of the Head During Salah
o To Raise the Hands upto the Earlobes
o To Tie the Hands Beneath the Navel
o Reciting Bismillah Softly
o The Muqtadi (follower) Should Listen and Remain Silent
o The Muqtadi Must Not Recite Surah Fatiha
o The Qira`at of the Imam suffices for the Muqtadi
o The person performing salah individually must recite Surah Fatiha
o “Aameen” Must be said softly
o Raising the Hands (upto the shoulders) During Salaah
o Proof from the Practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)
o Proof from the Practice of the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum)
o Jalsatul Istiraaha – Sitting briefly After The 2nd Sajdah Of The First Or Third Rakat
o Tashahhud
o Rasing the Index Finger During Tashahhud
o Darood Sharif
* Miscellaneous
o Raising Both the Hands and Making Du`a
o Sunnats Before Salat al-Zuhr
o Sunnats Before Salat al-Asr
o Sunnats of Salat al-Maghrib
o 4 Rakats Before Salat al-Isha
o Three Rakats of Witr
o Reciting Qunoot Before Ruku’
o Salaam Should Be Made at the End of the Witr salah
o Two Rakats Sunnah of Fajr
o Qada of the Two Rakats Sunnah of Salat al-Fajr
o Salat al-Tarawih During The Lifetime Of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)
o Salaat al-Tarawih During the Period of the Rightly-Guided Khulafa’ (TWENTY RAKAATS)
o The Takbeers Of Salat al-Eid
o Distance Of Shar’i Safar (Travel in the Shariah)
o The Duration Of Time Pertaining To Qasr
o Manner of standing in the saff (rows of the jama`ah)


Very often the following question is posed to many people: “Do you follow the Deen of Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) or the Deen of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)?” “Obviously the Deen of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam),” comes the instant reply. The second question is then posed: “Why then do you call yourself a Hanafi?” The person not well versed is perplexed by this question. Doubts are then created in his mind. He soon starts gradually drifting towards the abandoning of taqleed i.e. following one of the four illustrious Imams viz. Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.), Imam Shafi’i (R.A.), Imam Malik (R.A.) and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (R.A.).

By means of the type of questions that have been mentioned above, a deliberate attempt is made to create a misconception in the minds of the unwary — that if you are a Hanafi, you are following the Deen of Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.), NOT the Deen of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). This is an absolute fallacy. Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.), Imam Shafi’i (R.A.) and the other Imams did not invent any Deen of their own. They strictly followed the one and only Deen — the Deen of Islam brought by Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Their followers are hence also following the same Deen — the Deen of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).
Why Follow an Imam?

The question that arises here is that why then should one follow any of the four Imams? This can be answered by posing a counter-question: “Do you know all the various laws of Deen? Are you capable of extracting and deriving the laws pertaining to wudu, salah, zakah, etc. directly from the Qur’an and Hadith? Do you know which Hadith has abrogated another? Do you have the ability to reconcile between the various Ahadith which apparently contradict each other? Do you know which verses of the Qur’an are general in their application and which verses are qualified by other texts? etc., etc.” If one does not have the knowledge of these aspects, then one definitely does not have the ability to derive the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith. In that case the following aayah applies directly to oneself: “Ask those of knowledge if you do not know.” (43:7) Hence when we do not have the enormous amount of knowledge and expertise that is necessary to derive the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith, we have opted to follow one of those great people who had attained that distinguished mastery in this field, among whom is Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.). Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) is a Tabi’i (one who has seen a Sahabi). He attained the knowledge of Hadith from approximately 4000 teachers. His piety was such that for 40 years he performed fajr salah with the wudu of Isha salah (i.e. he did not sleep the entire night) [Tareekhul Baghdad]. His knowledge, brilliance and righteousness was such that all the great scholars of his time attested to his mastery. Thus one can be well assured that such a person is absolutely capable of deriving the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith.

Another reason for adopting one of the Imams as a guide is the following aayah of the Qur’an: Allah Ta’ala says: “And follow the path of those who turn to me” (31:15). In order to “turn” to Allah Ta’ala, two aspects are basic requisites — knowledge and practicing according to that knowledge. In this regard the four Imams were in an extremely high category. Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) was regarded by various Ulama of his time as being the most knowledgeable of the people of that era (footnotes of Tahdheebut Tahdheeb vol. 1 pg. 451). Makki bin Ibrahim, who was one of the renowned teachers of Imam Bukhari (R.A.), was a student of Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.). Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) compiled a book of Hadith entitled “Kitabul Aathaar” from among 40,000 Ahadith. Thus those who follow such a guide can be satisfied that they are strictly following the commands of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).
Difference of Opinion

At this point somebody may ask: “If all the Imams deduced the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith, how is it possible for them to differ on various aspects?” In order to understand the reality of these differences, we will have to go back in history right upto the time of the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum).

Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had just returned from a battle when he ordered the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum) to immediately proceed to the place of Banu Quraizah — a clan of Jews who lived on the outskirts of Madina Munawwarah. The purpose was to lay a siege upon them for having broken the pact that they had made with the Muslims. In order to impress the urgency of the matter upon the Sahaaba (R.A.), Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said to them: “None of you should perform your salah al-Asr except in Banu Quraizah.” While the Sahaaba (R.A.) were still en-route, the time of Asr arrived. Some Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum) felt that they should perform their Asr immediately. They regarded the instruction of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as actually being a command to proceed very swiftly to their destination. It did not imply that the Asr salah could not be performed en-route. They thus performed their salah there. Another group of Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum.) viewed the instruction literally. They therefore continued and only performed their Asr salah after having reached Banu Quraizah. Later when Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was informed about this, he did not rebuke either group. [Sahih Bukhaari]

Thus we find that the difference arose from a point of interpretation. However, this difference of interpretation is only entertained when it comes from a person who has in-depth knowledge of Deen and has attained a mastery in the Qur’an and Hadith and the other related aspects. At times a difference of opinion occurs due to the different narrations that are found with regards to a particular aspect. One Imam gives preference to one narration on the basis of various criteria while the other Imam, in the light of his knowledge, prefers the other narration. This is basically the manner in which these differences occur. However, just as Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) did not rebuke either of the two groups in the incident mentioned above, similarly since the Imams have attained the status of a mujtahid (one who is capable of deriving the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith), they will not be blame worthy even if they have erred. Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “When a haakim (ruler) passes judgement, and after having exerted his utmost effort he arrives at the correct solution, he gets a double reward. And if he errs after having exerted his utmost ability, he gets one reward.” (Bukhari vol. 2 pg. 1092). Ibn al-Munzir (R.A.) while commenting on this Hadith writes that a ruler will only get this reward if he has thorough knowledge and in the light of his knowledge he passed judgement. (see footnotes of Sahih Bukhari; ibid). The four Imams had the ability and necessary knowledge to practice ijtihaad. Thus they fall under the ambit of this Hadith.
Following One Imam Only

Another point that often comes up is the following: Why is it necessary to follow one Imam only? Why can one not follow a certain Imam in one aspect and another Imam in another aspect? The simple answer to this is: On what basis will one pick and choose, especially since one does not have the knowledge required to derive the laws. Thus one will not be in a position to evaluate the deductions of each Imam. Hence it will obviously be on the basis of what suits one. This is nothing but following one’s desires — regarding which Allah Ta’ala has issued severe warnings in the Qur’an. Following one’s desires sometimes even leads a person to kufr. Thus great jurists of latter times, among them Shah Waliullah (R.A.), have reaffirmed that it is wajib for the masses to follow one Imam only.
Authenticity of Hadith

Here one more point needs clarification with regards to the authenticity of Ahadith. The general masses are made to believe that a Hadith is only authentic if it is related in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. This is a misconception. The authenticity of the Hadith is based on its chain of narrators, irrespective of whether it appears in any one of the Sihah Sitta (the famous six authentic compilations of Hadith) or in any other compilation besides these. Imam Muslim has written in his muqqadama (introduction to Sahih Muslim) that he has not recorded every authentic Hadith in his Sahih. Actually, according to Imam Bukhari and imaam Muslim, there are more authentic Ahadith which are not recorded in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim than the number of narrations contained in these two books. The Hanafi madhhab is derived directly from the Qur’an and Hadith, like all the other madhhabs. However, to truly appreciate the conformity of the Hanafi madhhab with the Hadith, one will have to undertake a thorough study of the following books of Hadith: (1) Sharah Ma’anil Aathaar (2) Aljawharan Naqi (3) Nasbur Raayah (4) I’la as-Sunan (5) Bazlul Majhood (6) Fathul Mulhim (7) Awjazul Masaalik (8) Aathaarus Sunan, etc
The Purpose of This Book

It has already been explained above that the differences between the Imams are based on the different narrations or the difference of interpretation. However, all the Imams have their proofs from the Qur’an and Sunnah. Thus it is the duty of every person, while strictly following his Imam, to respect and honour the other Imams and their followers. Nevertheless, in this belated age there are many people who have cast aside the following of any of the four Imams completely. Instead, while claiming to follow the Qur’an and Hadith directly, they in reality have begun to follow the interpretations of (make taqleed of!) some modern day ghair muqallid (one who has abandoned taqleed). However, coupled with this they often will be found denigrating the followers of an Imam and classifing them as people following the Deen of Imam Abu Hanifa and others — not the Deen of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). They make themselves out as being the only ones who follow Hadith while all others are regarded as being contradictory to the Hadith. Many people have become entrapped in this propaganda. Thus this book sets out to explain proofs of specifically those aspects regarding which the Hanafis are generally made a target of abuse. The purpose is to simply bring to the attention of the unwary person that he is following the Deen of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam.) — not some other Deen. This book is not intended to create a climate of debate and argument. As already explained, all the Imams have their proofs. It is hoped that by the means of this book the baseless propaganda against those who follow one of the four illustrious Imams will be halted in its tracks.
About This Book

Initially a very detailed book on this topic was written in urdu by Sheik Muhammad Ilyas Faisal of Madina Munawwarah. A concise version was later published. This is the english rendering of the concise version which was translated by Moulana Abdul Qadir Vawda of Madrasah Taaleemuddeen. Some additions and alterations have been made where it was deemed appropriate. It must also be pointed out that every narration quoted in this booklet is highly authentic and of such a category which, according to the muhadditheen, can be used to derive the laws of Deen from it. May Allah Ta’ala accept this humble effort and make it a means of assisting in our salvation on the day of Qiyaamah. Aameen.
The Masnoon Method Of Wudu

Hazrat Usman (radhiallahu anhu) once asked: “Should I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his wudhu?” Thereafter he performed wudhu in such a manner that he washed every limb thrice. [Sahih Muslim, ch. on wudhu, Hadith 23]
Masah (passing wet fingers) Over The Nape.

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Whoever performs wudu and makes masah over his nape, he will be saved from wearing a necklace (of fire) around his neck on the the day of judgement”. The famous commentator of Sahih al-Bukhari, Allamah Ibn Hajar Asqalaani (R.A), writes in his book Talkheesul Habeer (vol. 1: p.92) that this narration is Sahih. Allamah Shawkani (R.A.) has also affirmed this in Naylul Awtaar (vol. 1, p.204).
Performing Masah Over Ordinary Socks

(i.e. cotton, woolllen, polyester, etc.)

It is not permissible to make masah over ordinary socks (cotton, woollen, nylon, etc. — i.e. all socks other than leather socks) in wudhu. There is no authentic narration sanctioning this practice. In the commentary of Tirmidhi, Tuhfatul Ahwazee, the famous Ahle Hadith scholar Allamah Mubarakpuri, has written that this practice of making masah on woollen, cotton, nylon socks and socks made from similar materials is not established from any authentic Hadith (vol. 1, pg.333). Many other high ranking scholars of the ghair muqallid sect (those who do not prescribe to taqleed) have refuted this practice and declared it as impermissible. (see fatawa Nazeeriah; 1:423)
Prescribed Times For The Five Daily Salaah

Hazrat Abu Huraira (radhiallahu anhu) narrates: “When the length of your shadow (from the sun) is equal to your height then perform the zuhr salah. When the length of your shadow becomes twice your height, perform the asr salah. Perform the maghrib salah when the sun has set. Perform the esha salah before one-third (1/3) of the night passes. And perform the fajr salah while it is still dark.” [Muwatta Imam Maalik vol.1, pg.8, Hadith 9]
Masnoon Time For Zuhr Salaah

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said: “When the heat becomes very intense (after mid-day), then delay the zuhr salah until it cools down, for verily the intensity of the heat is from the effects of Jahannam”. [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 615]
Masnoon Time For Asar

It was the noble habit of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) that he used to delay the performance of asar so long as the sun remained white and clear. [Abu Daud; Waqtul Asr]
Masnoon Time For Fajar

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “Perform the fajar salah when the sky brightens at the time of dawn (i.e. before sunrise) since this is a means of earning greater reward. [Tirmidhi, Hadith 154]

Imam Tirmidhi explains that the majority of the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum) used to perform fajar salah at this time (i.e. when the sky had brightened up).
Masnoon Method Of Iqaamah

Hazrat Bilal (radhiallahu anhu), Rasulullah’s (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) muazzin, used to call out the words of azaan and iqaamah twice. (This Hadith is classified as Sahih — Musannaf Abdur Razzaak; see Aathaarus Sunan v.1, pg. 53)

The muazzins of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Abu Mahzoora (radhiallahu anhu) and Thaubaan (radhiallahu anhu) also used to call out the azaan and iqaamah in the above mentioned manner (i.e. by saying the words twice). Allaamah Shawkani (R.A.) has affirmed the authenticity of the above narrations in Naylul Autaar, (vol.2. pg.24.)
Covering of the Head During Salaah

Ibn Umar (R.A.) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) wore a white hat. (Tabarani — Allama Suyuti has classified this Hadith as highly authentic: see Sirajul Muneer; v.4, pg.112). It is written in Fataawa Thunaaiyya vol. 1, pg. 525), and in the Fatawaa of the Ahle Hadith Scholars (vol. 4 pg.291) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) always used to keep his mubarak head covered during salah. In the same books it is also mentioned that to intentionally remove the headgear (hat) and perform salah bare-headed is contrary to the sunnah. (vol. 1, pg.523.)
To Raise the Hands upto the Earlobes

Hazrat Qataada (radhiallahu anhu) relates that he saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performing his salah. He relates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to lift his hands until they were in line with his earlobes. [Sahih Muslim, ch. on Istihbaabur Raf’, Hadith 391]
To Tie the Hands Beneath the Navel

Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) relates that the sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place one hand over the other below the navel. [Abu Daud, ch. on Wad’ul Yumna, Hadith 756]

The above-mentioned method of tying the hands is also related by Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu).
Reciting Bismillah Softly

Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) states, “I have performed congregational salah behind Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmaan (radhiallahu anhum) and I did not hear any one of them recite Bismillahir rahmaan nir raheem” [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 399]

Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) states that the majority of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) also used to recite Bismillah softly.
The Muqtadi (follower) Should Listen and Remain Silent

Allah Ta’aala says: “When the Qur’an is being recited then listen attentively and remain silent so that mercy will be showered upon you”.

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud, Abu Hurairah, Abdullah Ibn Abbas and Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal (radhiallahu anhum) state that this verse of the Quran was revealed with regards to the Khutba (of Juma’ah) and with regards to Salaah. [Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 1 pg. 281]

The dictates of this verse of the Holy Qur’an is that when the Imam recites the Qur’an aloud, the followers should listen attentively, and when he recites softly, the followers should remain silent.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “When you begin your congregational prayers, straighten your rows. Thereafter when the Imam says the takbeer (i.e. when he says Allahu Akbar aloud) you must also say the takbeer. However, when he begins the recital of the Qur’an, you must remain silent. And when he recites walad daalleen then you should say Ameen”. By performing your salah in this manner Allah Ta’ala will love you.” [Muslim; ch. on tashahhud]

(A similar Hadith has been narrated by Abu Hurairah (radhiallahu anhu)-Imam Muslim has attested to its authenticity; ibid).
The muqtadi Must Not Recite Surah Fatiha

It is reported from Hazrat Ataa Ibn Yasaar (radhiallahu anhu) that he questioned Hazrat Zaid Ibn Thaabit (radhiallahu anhu) concerning reciting Qira’at with the Imam. Hazrat Zaid (radhiallahu anhu) answered: “There is no recitation of the Glorious Qur’an in any salah behind the Imam”. [Sahih Muslim, chapter on Sujood-ut-Tilaawah, Hadith 577]
The Qiraat of the Imam SUFFICES for the Muqtadi

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) used to repeatedly say: “Whoever performs salah behind the Imam, the Imam’s qiraat suffices for him”. (Sunan Baihaqi; chapter on not reciting qiraat behind the Imam — Imam Baihaqi (R.A.) has stated that this Hadith is Sahih.)
The Person Performing salah Individually Must Recite Surah Fatiha, Not the Muqtadi

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) was asked: “Must the muqtadi recite behind the Imam?” He replied that the qiraat of the Imam is sufficient for the muqtadi. But if he performs salah individually, then he must recite qiraat. It was the practice of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) also that he would not recite surah fatiha behind the Imam. (In Aathaarus Sunan (Vol. 1 pg.89) this Hadith has been classified as sahih).

Hazrat Jaabir (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that the one who does not recite sura fatiha even in one rakat, his salah is not valid. However, if he is behind an Imam he must not recite surah fatiha. (This Hadith has been classified as hasan — Tirmizi – ch. on not reciting behind the Imam). It is on the basis of this Hadith that Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) has narrated from Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (R.A.) [who was the teacher of the ustad of Imam Bukhari (R.A.)] that the narration “Whoever does not recite surah fatiha his salah is not complete” refers to one who performs his salah alone. It does not include the muqtadi (Jami’ Tirmidhi, ibid). In the above Hadith it is very clearly mentioned that the muqtadi must not recite sura fatiha.
“Aameen” Must be said softly

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “Do not hasten before the Imam! When he says the takbeer, then you should do the same. When he recites Walad daalleen, then you should say Aameen. When he makes ruku’ then you should make ruku’. And when he says sami’-Allahu liman hamidah then you should say Allahumma Rabbana wa lakal hamd”. [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 415]

With regards to the saying of Ameen this narration is very clear and explicit. Like in the case where the Imam says Allahu Akbar and sami’-Allahu liman hamidah aloud, but all the followers say “Allahu Akbar”and “Rabbana lakal hamd” softly. In the same manner when the Imam recites “walad daalleen” aloud, the followers should say Aameen softly. It is also reported from Abu Ma’mar that Umar (radhiallahu anhu) used to say: “The Imam will recite four things softly-Ta’awwuz, Bismillah, Aameen and Rabbana Lakalhamd” (Aini Vol. 1 pg. 620)
Raising the Hands (upto the shoulders) During Salaah

Hazrat Jaabir Ibn Samurah (radhiallahu anhu) relates that once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out of his house towards us and said: “Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salah”. [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 430]

This hadith alone makes it clear that those narrations which mention the raising of the hands (during the salah) were narrated prior to the prohibition of this practice.
Proof from the PRACTICE of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu) said: “Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his salah?” Thereafter he performed the salah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salah). [Tirmidhi, Hadith no.257] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (R.A.) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (R.A.) has also declared it as sahih.
Proof from the Practice of the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum)

It is related that Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) used to raise his hands at the time of the first Takbeer (during his salah). Thereafter he did not raise them. [Sunanal Bayhaqi]

(The commentator of Bukhari Shareef, Allama Ibn Hajar, Allama Zayla’i and Allama ‘Aini (R.A.) have said that this narration and its chain of narrators is Sahih)

One should take note of the fact that the practice of Hazrat Umar, the remaining Khulafa-e-Raashideen, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud and many more Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhu) was the same, that they only raised their hands at the time of the first takbeer. Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) also states that this was the practice of a great number of the Sahabah (radhiallahu anhum).
Jalsatul Istiraaha – Sitting briefly After The 2nd Sajdah Of The First Or Third Rakaat

In a narration from the ibn Sahl (radhiallahu anhu) it is mentioned that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said the takbeer and simultaneously went into sajdah. Then he said the takbeer and simultaneously stood up erect without sitting. [Abu Daud, Hadith no. 966]

Imam Bayhaqi (R.A.) has recorded in his Sunan that this was the practice of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu). Allama Zayla’i (R.A.) has recorded in Nasabur Raayah that the same procedure was the practice of Hazrat Umar, Ali, Abdullah Ibn Zubeir and Abdullah Ibn Abbaas (radhiallahu anhu). (vol. 1, pg. 289)

Likewise Allaamah Turkumani has recorded in Jauharun Naqi regarding several Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) that it was their practice that after the first and third rakat they would stand up straight from sajdah without sitting. (vol. 1, pg. 125)

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “When you sit during salah (for Qa’dah Akheerah, the last Qa’dah) read the following:-

“All oral, physical and monetary worship is due to Allah alone. Salutations to you ‘O Nabi, and the mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you. Peace be upon us and upon all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that none is worthy of worship besides Allah and that Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is his servant and messenger.)

Thereafter he would choose from the supplications whatever he wished.”

[Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 402; Sahih Bukhari, chapter on Tashahhud].
Rasing the Index Finger During Tashahhud

It is narrated that when Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to sit down to supplicate, (to recite tashahhud) he used to place his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh. He would indicate at the time of reciting the shahadah by raising his index finger. He would also join the ends of his thumb and middle finger (thereby forming a circle). [Sahih Muslim, chapter on the description of sitting-Hadith no.579]
Darood Sharif

The Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum) inquired from Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as to which durood should they recite (during salah). Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied: “Recite the following durood- Allahuma salli `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin kama sallata `ala Ibrahim wa `ala ali Ibrahim. Innaka hameedun majeed.  wa barik Allahuma `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin kama barakta `ala Ibrahim wa `ala ali Ibrahim. Innaka hameedun majeed.

(trans: O Allah shower your mercy upon Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as you have showered your mercy upon Ibrahim (A.S.) and the family of Ibrahim (A.S.). Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah shower your blessings upon Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as you have showered your blessings upon Ibrahim (A.S.) and the family of Ibrahim (A.S.). Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious.
Raising Both the Hands and Making Dua

It is narrated that Abdullah Ibn Zubair (radhiallahu anhu) saw a man raising his hands and making dua before completing his salah. When the person had completed his salah, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Zubair (radhiallahu anhu) went up to him and said: “Verily, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to only raise his hands and make dua after completing his salah” (the narrators of this Hadith are all trustworthy — Majmauz Zawaaid, vol. 1, pg. 169).

It is also mentioned in the Fataawa of Ahle Hadith (vol. 1, pg.190) as well as in Fatawa Nazeeriyya (vol. 1, pg. 566) that in the light of the Sharia, the dua after salah is an authentically established practice and it is mustahab to do so.
Sunnats BEFORE Salaat al-Zuhr

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said: “Whoever performs four rakats before the fardh of zuhr and four rakats after it, Allah Ta’aala will make him haraam upon the fire of Jahannam”. [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 428]
Sunnats BEFORE Salaat al-Asr

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said: “May Allah show mercy upon that person who performs four rakats before the fard of `asr”. [Tirmidhi, chapter on the narrations regarding the four rakats, Hadith no. 430]
Sunnats of Salaat al-Maghrib

Hazrat Abu Ma’mar (radhiallahu anhu) has said that the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) used to consider 4 rakats after the Fardh of maghrib to be mustahab. [Qiyaamul-Layl of Marwazi pg.58]
4 Rakaats Before Salaat al-Isha

Hazrat Sa’eed Ibn Jubair (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) used to regard the performing of four rakats before the fardh of isha as mustahab. [ibid. pg.58]
Three Rakaats of Witr

Hazrat A’yesha (radhiallahu anha) is reported to have said (with regards to the tahajjud salah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam): “He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never used to perform more than eleven rakats, whether in Ramadhan or out of Ramadhaan. Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would perform long rakats in two units of four rakats each with such excellence and devotion which cannot be described. Thereafter he would perform three rakats of witr salah”. [Sahih Muslim, chapter on salatul layl, Hadith 738]
Reciting Qunoot Before Ruku’

Hazrat Aasim (radhiallahu anhu) narrates: “I inquired from Hazrat Anas Ibn Malik (radhiallahu anhu) concerning the qunoot of witr. He affirmed its occurrence in the witr salah. Then I asked whether it should be recited before the ruku or after it. He replied: “It should be recited before the ruku”. I then informed him of a certain person who had heard him (Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) saying that it should be recited after ruku. Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) most vehemently denied this”. Furthermore he said: “Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) recited the qunoot after the ruku for only one month.(referring to the qunootun naazilah)” [Sahih Bukhari, chapter on qunoot before ruku].

In Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah it is mentioned that for this very reason the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum) used to recite the qunoot before ruku.

Allaama Ibn Hajar (R.A.) writes in his commentary on Bukhari, Fath al-Bari that after analysing all these narrations we learn that it was the normal practice to recite the qunoot before ruku.

However on certain occasions (such as the befalling of a calamity, etc.) the qunoot would be recited after ruku. (vol. 1, pg. 291)
Salaam Should Be Made at the End of the Witr salah

Hazrat A’yesha (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to perform three rakats witr without making salam in between (i.e. after two rakats.) [Zadul Ma’aad, pg.110]

Allama Ibn Hajar (R.A.) writes in Fathul Baari, the commentary on Sahih Bukhari, that Hazrat Ubay Ibn Ka’b, Hazrat Umar, Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud and Anas Ibn Malik (radhiallahu anhum) used to make salam at the end of three rakats witr, not in between. (vol. 1, pg. 291)
Two Rakaats Sunnah of Fajr

It is narrated that once Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu) reached the masjid whilst the Imam was leading the salah of fajr with the congregation. Hence, since he had not as yet performed the two rakats sunnah of fajr, he stood behind one of the pillars of the masjid and performed it (while the jama’ah was in progress). Thereafter he joined the jamaat. [Majmauz-Zawaaid, vol. 1, pg. 75]

This was also the practice of Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Abu Dardaa and Uthmaan (radhiallahu anhum).
Qada of the Two Rakaats Sunnah of Salaat al-Fajr

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “Whoever did not perform the sunnah of fajr should perform it after the sun rises”. [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 423]

In the Muwwatta of Imam Malik (R.A.) it is narrated that this was also the practice of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu).
Salaat al-Tarawih During The Lifetime Of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)

It is narrated that one night during Ramadhaan Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed salat al-tarawih in the masjid. A group of Sahaabah joined him during his salah. The following night the same happened as the previous night except that the number of followers had increased considerably. Hence on the third (or fourth) night Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) did not come out to the masjid to perform salat al-tarawih with the people. The following morning he said to them: “Indeed I had seen your eagerness (to perform the tarawih behind me), but for the fear that this salah will be made fardh (compulsory) upon you during Ramadhaan, I did not come out to join you in the tarawih”. [Muslim, Hadith no.761]
Salaat al-Tarawih During the Period of the Rightly-Guided Khulafa’ (TWENTY RAKAATS)

Hazrat Yazeed Ibn Ruman (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that during the khilaafah of Hazrat Umar (radhiallahu anhu) the Sahaabah used to perform twenty rakats tarawih and three rakats witr salah (with jama`at). [Muwwatta Imam Maalik, chapter concerning standing in salah during Ramadhaan]

During the khilafah of Abu Bakr (radhiallahu anhu) tarawih with jamaat was not in vogue. The practice of performing twenty rakats with jamaat in every night of Ramadhaan and the completion of the entire Quraan began only during the the khilafat of Hazrat Umar (radhiallahu anhu). All the Sahaabah present had agreed upon this practice. From then onwards including the Khilafah of both Hazrat Uthmaan and Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) upto this day the Muslim Ummah (at large) has followed this practice.

Twenty rakats tarawih is also performed in both the Masjids of Makkah and Madinah upto the present time. However, it is tragic that in recent times a group of people have conflicted with the consensus of the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) and the rest of the Ummah with regards to the number of rakats in Tarawih salah.
The Takbeers Of Salaat al-Eid

Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari (radhiallahu anhu) was asked regarding the number of takbeers that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say in both the Eid salahs. He replied: “He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say four takbeers (in every rakat), in the same way as he used to say the takbeers in the salat al-Janaaza”. Hazrat Hudhaifa (radhiallahu anhu) also confirmed this practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). [Abu Dawud, Hadith no. 1153]

Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) has also recorded several narrations of similar meaning from Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud and other Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum).
Distance Of Shar’i Safar (Travel in the Shariah)

It is narrated that Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar and Abdullah Ibn Abbas (radhiallahu anhu) would perform Qasr salah and that they would also make iftaar (i.e. they would not fast) whenever they travelled the distance of four burud. Four burud is sixteen farsakh i.e. 48 miles. [Bukhari, chapter regarding the distance upon which one will perform Qasr salah].

It is mentioned in Fatawa Thunaiyya that the majority of the Muhadditheen say that 48 miles is the correct distance of Shar’i travel (safar). Nine miles is incorrect. (vol.1, pg.482)
The Duration Of Time Pertaining To Qasr

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) stated that whoever intends to stopover at any place along his journey for fifteen days (or more), he should perform his salah fully (i.e. he should not perform Qasr salah.) [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 548]
Manner of standing in the rows of the jama`ah

It is established from several ahadith that the row should be absolutely straight and no gaps should be left between the worshippers. However, some people insist on spreading their feet and standing in such a manner that their ankles touch the ankles of their neighbour. What is the reality of standing in this fashion?

Those who stand in this way base their practice upon a hadith narrated by Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu). He says: “Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) faced us and said: “Straighten your rows”. He repeated this thrice. He then said: “By Allah, you must most certainly straighten your rows or else Allah Ta’ala will disunite your hearts”. Hazrat Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) says: “I then saw the people joining together their shoulders and ankles”. [Abu Dawood, Sahih ibn Khuzaima]

The concluding statement of Hazrat Nu’maan (radhiallahu anhu) is also reported in Sahih Bukhari.

However, upon analysing this hadith, several points come to light: Firstly, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never commanded the joining of the ankles. No hadith has yet been found wherein Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) himself instructed the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to join their ankles. The Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) had themselves adopted this manner in order to fulfil the command of straightening the saff. Secondly, this hadith clearly mentions that Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) saw the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) doing this PRIOR to the commencement of the salah. There is no mention of this position being maintained even after the salah had commenced. Therefore we find that great muhadditheen such as Hafiz ibn Hajar (R.A.) and Allama Shawkani (R.A.) have regarded this as an extreme measure which was occasionally adopted by the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to ensure that the row is straight.

In fact, a hadith of Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) makes it absolutely clear that this practice was merely a measure adopted BEFORE the salah to ensure the straightening of the row. He says: “If I had to do that (join the ankles) with anyone of them (the tabi’een) today, they would run like wild mules”. [Fath al-Bari, vol.2, pg.176]

This simply means that the taabi’een severely disliked that anybody should join their ankles with them. Several points are understood from this: Firstly, Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) had stopped doing this completely. Had this been a sunnah and not just a manner of ensuring that the saff was straight, it is impossible that Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) would have left it out merely upon somebody disliking it.

Secondly, the taabi’een would never have disliked it if they had observed many of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) continuously practicing upon this. It was only due to the fact that they had not generally observed the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) adopting this procedure that they disliked it. Hence this makes it crystal clear that the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) had only occasionally adopted this practice to ensure the straightening of the saff. It was not a sunnah in itself, otherwise they would never have left it out.

It has already been made clear that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never himself instructed the joining of the ankles, nor is there any mention of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) having maintained this position even IN salah. However, if for a moment we do accept that this position must be adopted during the course of the salah as well, the question is: In which posture of salah must this position be maintained? Must it be maintained during qiyam, ruku, sajdah and qada or in only some of these postures? If one says that the ankles should be joined only in the qiyam posture, on what basis were the other postures excluded? If it is argued that it is difficult to do so in ruku and sajdah, the same could be said for qiyam, since to stand with one’s feet spread apart is naturally awkward and hence it presents a certain amount of difficulty and uneasiness for many people. In short, this practice is not established as a sunnah of salah. It was merely adopted initially by the Sahaba (radiallahu anhum) BEFORE the commencement of salah to ensure that the rows are straight.

And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

thanks to Mas’ud Ahmed Khan



The Challenge of the Quran

Description: The Qur’anic challenge to produce a work similar to it, and the inability of its contemporaries to meet it.

By Dr. Bilal Philips

The Quran is not only unique in the way in which it presents its subject matter, but it is also unique in that it is a miracle itself. By the term “miracle,” we mean the performance of a supernatural or extraordinary event which cannot be duplicated by humans. It has been documented that Prophet Muhammad, may God praise him, challenged the Arabs to produce a literary work of a similar caliber as the Quran, but they were unable to do so in spite of their well-known eloquence and literary powers. The challenge to reproduce the Quran was presented to the Arabs and mankind in three stages:

l.     The Whole Quran

In the Quran, God commanded the Prophet to challenge all of creation to create a book of the stature of the Quran:

“Say: ‘If all mankind and the jinn would come together to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce its like even though they exerted all and their strength in aiding one another.’” (Quran 17:88)

2.     Ten Chapters

Next, God made the challenge ostensibly easier by asking those who denied its divine origin to imitate even ten chapters of the Quran:

“Or do they say that he has invented it? Say (to them), ‘Bring ten invented chapters like it, and call (for help) on whomever you can besides God, if you are truthful.” (Quran 11:13)

3.      One Chapter

This final challenge was to produce even a single chapter to match what is in the Quran, whose shortest chapter, al-Kawthar, consists of only three verses:

“And if you all are in doubt about what I have revealed to My servant, bring a single chapter like it, and call your witnesses besides God if you are truthful.” (Quran 2:23)

These challenges were not just empty words with no one caring to prove them wrong. Prophet Muhammad’s call to monotheism, to the abolition of idolatry in all its forms, and to the equality of slaves and their masters threatened the whole socio-economic framework of Mecca society in general, and the position of the ruling Quraishee tribe from which the Prophet came in particular. Mecca, the trading center of Arabia, as well as its spiritual center, desperately wanted to stop the spread of Islam. Yet all that the Prophet’s opponents had to do to crush the movement was to make up a single chapter like any one of those which the Prophet and his followers were reciting to the people. A number of Quraishee orators and poets tried to imitate the Quran, but they failed. They then resorted to offering him vast amounts of wealth, the position of king over them, and the most noble and beautiful of their women in exchange for his promise to stop inviting people to Islam. He responded to them by reciting the first thirteen verses of Chapter Fussilat, until they asked him to stop.[1] The Quraish also resorted to torturing their slaves and relatives who had embraced Islam in a vain attempt to cause them to revert to paganism. Later they organized an economic boycott against the Prophet his followers and the members of his clan, Banu Hashim, in an attempt to starve them into submission. But even this plan eventually failed. Finally, they plotted to kill him in his home by sending armed young men from each of the clans of Quraish in order that the guilt of his murder be shared by all the clans, making revenge by the Prophet’s clan impossible.

However, God enabled the Prophet and his followers to flee Mecca and join a new band of converts who had arisen among the tribes of a city to the north called Yathrib. Islam spread rapidly through the clans of Yathrib, and within a year Muslims became the city’s majority. Prophet Muhammad was then made the ruler, and the name of the city was changed to Medina an-Nabi (The City of the Prophet may God praise him), which was then shortened to “Medina.” Over the next eight years, the clans of Mecca and its neighboring lands mounted a series of unsuccessful battle campaigns against the emerging Muslim state in Medina, which ended with the Muslim invasion of Mecca itself.

All of this bloodshed could have been avoided if only the Quraish and their allies had been able to produce a mere three lines of poetry or flowing prose similar to the shortest chapter of the Quran. Hence, there can be no doubt about the inimitability of the Quran’s literary style, about the miracle of its rhyme and the marvel of its rhythm.

It has been suggested that the inimitability of the Quran is not necessarily unique, for great English poets like Shakespeare, Chaucer, or great poets in any language tend to have distinctly unique styles which set them apart from their contemporaries. However, if, for example, some leading poet of today were to make an in-depth study of Shakespeare’s writings and write a sonnet in Shakespeare’s style in old ink and on old paper, then claim that he had discovered a lost poem of Shakespeare’s, the literary world would probably accept this claim, even after careful study. Thus, even the greatest of poets could be imitated; no matter how unique his style was, just as the famous painters have been imitated. [In fact, some English scholars consider much of what has been attributed to Shakespeare to have been written by his contemporary, Christopher Marlowe.] The Quran, however, is way above this level, as attempts to forge chapters have been made throughout the ages, yet none has withstood close scrutiny. And, as was mentioned before, the incentive to imitate the Quran was more intense during the time of its revelation when literally skills were at their peak than at any other time, yet there was no successful attempt.


Sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Hazrat Al-Bara` bin `Azib (d) reported: Rasoolullah (j) said, “Whenever you intend to go to bed, perform Wudu’ asAl-Hadith is done for Salat (prayer); and then lie down on the right side and recite: `Allahumma aslamtu nafsi ilaika, wa fawwadtu amri ilaika, wal-ja’tu zahri ilaika, raghbatan wa rahbatan ilaika, la malja’a wa la manja minka illa ilaika, amantu bikitabik-alladhi anzalta, wa binabiyyik-alladhi arsalta. (O Allah! I have submitted myself to you. I have turned my face to you, entrusted my affairs to you and relied completely on you out of desire for and fear of you (expecting your reward and fearing your punishment). There is no resort and no deliverer from (hardships) except you. I affirm my faith in Your Book which you have revealed, and in Your Prophet whom you have sent).’ If you die during the night, you will die in the true religion. Let these words be your last words at night.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

This Hadith point s out the desirability of performing wudhu’ before going to bed and reciting this du`a which shows genuine worship and complete submission to Allah.



Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S)

By: Muslim

The story begins nearly 4000 years ago when a prophet named Ibrahim ‘alaihis salaam was born in a place called Ar. His people worshiped idols made of stone and wood or the celestial bodies in the heavens. But from a very early age he was given very special spiritual understanding. As Allah says:

“And indeed We bestowed aforetime on Ibrahim his guidance.” (Surah 21:51)

Allah had opened his heart to the Truth. He explained to his people the beauty of Allah’s creation, His power and wisdom. But they would not give up and clung fast to idolatry.
Ibrahim decided to do something about their state of disbelief. There was to be a great celebration out of the city which all the people of the town were attending. Ibrahim said he felt he was about to be sick and excused himself from going. When the city was empty he came out of his house with a sharp axe and went to the temple that housed idols and statues of all kinds. The priests too had left the place of worship for the festival.
Ibrahim went there carrying a sharp axe. He looked at the stone and wood statues of the gods and at the food laid in front of them as offerings. He approached one of the statues and asked: “The food in front of you is getting cold. Why don’t you eat?” the statue kept silent and rigid. Ibrahim asked all the other statues around him: “Will you not eat of the offering before you?” (Ch 37:91)
He was mocking them for he knew they would not eat.
He once again asked then: “What is the matter with you that you do not speak?” (Ch 37:92)
After that he swung his axe and smashed to bits all the false gods except the biggest on whose shoulder he hung the axe. He left then, hoping it would teach his people a lesson and waited for the reaction.
When the people returned they could not believe their eyes! Who could commit such wickedness? All and one thought of the same name…Ibrahim, it had to be him.
Allâh the Almighty said:
They said: “Who has done this to our aliah (gods)? He must indeed be one of the wrongdoers.” They said: “We heard a young man talking against them who is called Ibrahim.” They said: “Then bring him before the eyes of the people, that they may testify.” they said: “Are you the one who has done this to our gods, O Ibrahim?” Ibrahim said: “nay, this one, the biggest of them (idols) did it, Ask them, if they can speak!”
So they turned to themselves and said: “Verily you are the Zalimun (polytheists, and wrongdoers).” Then they turned to themselves (their first thought and said): “Indeed you (Ibrahim) know well that these idols speak not?” Ibrahim said: “DO you then worship besides Allâh, things that can neither profit you nor harm you? If upon you, and upon that which you worship besides Allâh! Have you then no sense?” (Ch 21:59-67 Qur’an)
Instead of thinking with sense they became furious and caught Ibrahim alaihis salaam to punish him. This was what he had actually wanted so he could publicly prove them their foolish behaviour. He did so with logical reasoning but while they did come to realize their error in their hearts, their arrogance would not allow them to admit it. They did what tyrants usually do. They kept Ibrahim in custody and planned a monstrous punishment for him.
For days a huge pit was dug by the people, then it was filled with firewood till the hole in the earth was choked full and then it was set ablaze. When the flames reached the sky and the fire was black with ferocity, they put Ibrahim on a catapult and flung him in.
His fall was as a descent into a cool garden for Allah Ta’ala had ordered the fire, “O fire! Be you coolness and safety for Ibrahim.” (21:69)
You see, fire too is a creation of Allah. It burns at His command and now it became coolness at His command. The flames could still be seen but their effect was the opposite. The same can be said for any other thing; water wets but it can burn if Allah so desires; sunshine dries but it can wet if Allah so wills.
Ibrahim alihis salaam sat in the fire as if he were sitting in a shady garden. He remembered Allah and praised Him, his love deepening for his Creator who had saved him despite no apparent means and honored him before the idolaters.
All the people, the king, the priests, and chieftains sat there watching the fire burn like hell. Their faces were black with the smoke and scorched with the heat but their feeling of vengeance made them sit there gloating at what they had done to the person who had dared to challenge them.
Slowly the fire died out and what do they see but Ibrahim coming out of it as calm and cool as if he had been sitting there relaxing in it. It was astounding! But still the people refused to accept his beliefs.
Only one woman and one man had accepted the Truth. The woman was Hadhrat Sarah who became his wife. The man was his cousin Hadhrat Lut ‘alaihis salaam who became a prophet.
When Ibrahim ‘alaihis salaam realized that no one else was going to accept his call, at Allah’s command he migrated to Palestine with his wife. He used it as headquarters to spread the message to neighboring areas. When he went to Egypt on his mission, Hadhrat Sarah was given Hagar (The Arabic pronunciation of Hajrah) the daughter of the then Pharaoh. She gave her to her husband as a wife. Hagar soon had a son named Isma’eel alaihis salaam. It is said that Ibrahim alaihis salaam was nearly 85 at the time.


One day Ibrahim alaihis salaam woke up and took Lady Hagar and Isma’eel with him on a long journey. They traveled through farmland, crossed deserts, climbed over mountains until they reached a bleak place with no water or food in sight. There Hadhrat Ibrahim left his family with only a little water and a small leather pouch of dates and turned away to go. Seeing that he was setting off without them Hadhrat Hagar ran after him asking, “Where are you going, Ibrahim, leaving us in this barren valley?”

He did not answer but continued walking. She repeated what she had said but he remained silent. Finally, she realized that he was not acting of his own will but Allah had commanded him to do so. She asked,

“Did Allah ask you to do so?”

He replied, “Yes”.

Hearing this she was immediately at peace.

“We are not going to be lost” she said, “since Allah who has so decreed, is with us.”

See how strong her faith in Allah was? She was being left alone in the vast loneliness with hardly a creature in sight, a small baby with her, no shelter for protection, and food enough only for a couple of days, but her love for Allah and her belief in His love for her made her so strong and calm.

When Ibrahim alaihis salaam reached Thaniya, where they could not see him, he turned towards the Ka’bah and prayed to Allah:

“O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House, in order, O our Lord that they may offer prayers perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks.” (Surah 14:37)

After Hadhrat Ibrahim ‘alaihis salaam had left Hadhrat Hagar and Isma’eel at Makkah and returned to Palestine, the story is narrated by Ibn-e-‘Abbas radhiyallahu ta’ala anh thus:

“ Isma’eel’s mother went on nursing Isma’eel and drinking from the water (she had). When the water in the water-skin had all been used up she and her child became thirsty. She saw him tossing in agony and could not bear it. She looked around and found that the mountain of Al-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and looked about her keenly so that she might see somebody (to call for help) but there was no one.

She descended from Al-Safa and when she reached the valley she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached the mountain of Al-Marwa. There she stood and started looking for somebody but she could not. She repeated that (running between Safa and Marwa) seven times.”

Our Prophet sallalla hu ‘alaihi wasallam has said that this is the source of the tradition of the Sa’i, one of the rituals of Hajj or ‘Umrah, the running between the mounts of Safa and Marwa. Scholars say that this honour was bestowed upon Hadhrat Hagar because of her unfailing trust in Allah when she had been left there on her own with a little baby and scarce sustenance.

When Hadhrat Hagar reached Marwa for the last time she heard a voice. She listened attentively and heard it again. She said:

“O! (Whoever you may be) you have made me hear your voice, have you something to help me (by)?”

And behold! She saw an angel at the place where the well of Zam-zam is. He was digging a hole in the earth till water flowed from that place. In another tradition it is said that the water flowed where Hadhrat Isma’eel had been rubbing his heels in the sand. Hurriedly so as to save as much of the water as she could, she started making a basin around it scraping sand and also filling her water-skin, but the water continued to flow, not diminishing and it is still doing so after thousands and thousands of years.

Hadhrat Hagar drank the water and fed her child. She lived that way for some time. One day a caravan landed in the lower part of Makkah. The people saw a bird that had the habit of flying near water. They were curious, as they knew that there was no water in that valley. Following the bird one or two of the people came to investigate and what do they find but a young mother with her baby, sitting beside the water. They asked her, “Do you allow us to stay with you?” Hadhrat Hagar said yes but the water would be her property. The people were of the tribe of Jurhum, who some say used to live in the valleys around Makkah or Bakkah as it was then called. Hadhrat Isma’eel ‘alaihis salaam grew up among these people and learned Arabic from them. And this is how the city of Makkah, the backdrop of the Muslims, was settled.

Courtesy” The Truth” International



From As-Sunnah Bimonthly Islamic Newsletter
Whilst some take this concept very seriously, and make use of un-Islamic measures, like the hanging of amulets and pagan rituals to protect themselves from the revengeful soul, others simply consider these issues to be unimportant and do not bother to seek knowledge about it.
But the fact remains, that not only do many people fear the souls, but entire religions are focused around ancestor and soul worship. Large amount of wealth is spent on making offerings to the souls and many rituals and festivals are held in this regard, for example, many people believe that the deceased visit this world on the 15th of Shabaan (8th month of the Islamic Calendar) and they call it ‘Eid of the Dead.’ Some even go to the extreme of preparing the foods that the deceased liked!
It is therefore essential that the Muslims be informed about the gravity of this call and be educated about the correct Islamic Aqeedah (belief). This article is specifically aimed to expose the falsity of these beliefs and bring to the reader authentic proofs from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, which undoubtedly reject the soul’s return. We hope that this article will dispel doubts and confusion around the subject. And with Allah lies all success.
Islamic Concept of the Soul:
Soul is from the matters of the unseen and nothing can be said in its explanation without established proofs from the Book and the Sunnah. The knowledge required for our welfare in this world and the Hereafter has been conveyed to us by the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam), and there is no need to seek any goodness beyond that. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “There is nothing that will take you closer to Paradise but that I have enjoined it upon you, and there is nothing that will take you closer to Hell but that I have warned you from it.” [Musnad ash-Shafi’e and others]

The Jews asked Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) about the soul and in reply the Qur’aan said: “They ask you concerning the soul. Say that the soul is from Allah and you have not been given knowledge of it except a little.” [Soorah al-Isra (17): 85]

The Soul is a creation of Allah, whose function is to bring life to the human body. It remains with the human body throughout the life and departs at death. After which the souls are either held in Paradise or punishment. There is no returning back of the souls of the righteous people from Paradise, and no escaping of the souls of evildoers from the punishment of the grave. Therefore, pious or evil, the souls do not return to this world, neither to take revenge nor to assist the living. Neither is there any concept in Islam, which explains that justice is dependant upon the soul’s coming back and setting things aright. Islam teaches that Allah is responsible to see that every being gets its due right and injustice does not go unpunished.

Journey of the Soul after Death

Death occurs when the soul separates from the human body and enters the realm of ‘Barzakh’, which is the period between one’s death and the Hereafter.

Appearing of the Angels
(a) The Believing Soul: Angels with faces shining bright like the sun descend from the Heavens, carrying a shroud and fragrance of Paradise and sit away from him as far as the eye can see. The Angel of Death then approaches and says: “O good soul, come out to Allah’s forgiveness and pleasure.” The soul then comes out as gently as a drop from a water-skin, and he seizes it. Within the blinking of an eye, the other Angels take the soul and put it in the shroud and fragrance. There will then come from the soul, a fragrance like that of the sweetest musk found on the face of Earth.

(b) The Disbelieving Soul: Angels with black faces come down to him from the Heaven with hair-cloth and sit away from him as far as an eye can see. The Angel of death comes to him and says: “O wicked soul, come out to the displeasure from Allah. The soul becomes scattered in the body, and the Angel of Death draws it out as violently as a spit is drawn out from moistened wool. He then seizes it, and when he does so, the other Angels do not leave the disbelieving soul in his hand for an instant, but put it in that hair-cloth and from it comes forth a smell like the most offensive corpse found on the Earth.

Ascending to the Heaven
(a) The Believing Soul: The Angels ascend the believing soul to the Seventh Heaven and every group of Angels they pass asks: “Who is this good soul?” to which they reply: “So and so, the son of so and so.” using his best names by which people called him on the Earth. Then the believing soul is presented before Allah. Allah, the Great and Glorious, says: “Record the Book of My servant in the Illiyyoon and take him back to Earth, for I created mankind from it, and I shall return them to it, from it I shall bring them forth again.”

(b) The Disbelieving Soul: The Angels take the disbelieving soul up to the Heaven and do not bring it pass a company of Angels without their saying: “Who is this wicked soul?” to which they reply: “So and so, the son of so and so.” Using the worst names that he was called in the world. When he is brought to the lowest Heaven, request is made for the gate to be opened for him, but it is not opened for him. Allah, who is most Great and Glorious, then says: “Record his Book in Sijjin (the lowest place) and his soul is thrown down to Earth.”

Questioning in the Grave
(a) The Believing Soul: The Soul is temporary restored in the body. Two Angels come to it and ask: “Who is your Lord?” He replies: “My Lord is Allah.” They ask: “What is your religion?” He replies: “My religion is Islam.” They ask: “Who is this man who was sent among you?” and He will reply: ” He is the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).” They ask: “What was the source of your knowledge?” He replies: “I have read Allah’s Book, believed in it and declared it to be true.” Then one cry is heard from the Heaven: “My servant has spoken the truth…”

(b) The Disbelieving Soul: Angels approach the disbelieving soul for questioning, but he can barely answer their questions by saying: ‘Alas! I do not know…’

The Abode and Companion
(a) The Believing Soul: Some of the joys of Paradise and its fragrance come to him and his grave is made spacious for him as far as an eye can see. A man with a beautiful face, beautiful garments and sweet odor comes to the righteous slave and says: “Rejoice in what pleases you, for this is your day which you have been promised.” He asks: “Who are you?” He replies: “I am your good deeds.” He then says: “My Lord, bring the Last Hour; my Lord bring the Last Hour, so I may return to my people and my property.”

(b) The Disbelieving Soul: Some of the Hell’s heat and hot air comes to him, his grave is made narrow for him such that his ribs interpenetrate into each other. A man with an ugly face, ugly garments and an offensive odor comes to him and says: “Be grieved with what displeases you, for this is your day which you have been promised.” He asks: “Who are you? For your face is most ugly and brings evil.” He replies: “I am your wicked deeds.” He then says: “My Lord, do not bring the Last Hour.”
From the above we know how the soul is taken out of the human body upon death and presented before Allah. If the soul is righteous, it enjoys the bounties of Allah and if it is wicked, it suffers the torment of the grave, which is very severe and none can escape its anguish and suffering. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “This Ummah will be tried in its grave. If it were not for the fear that you might not bury your dead, I would pray to Allah to make you hear what I hear.” [Saheeh Muslim]
Uthman Ibn Affan (radhiallahu anhu) used to cry until he wet his beard, if he was to stand on a grave. He was told: ‘You mention the Heaven and the Hell-Fire and you don’t cry, but when you mention the grave, you burst in tears!’ He said: ‘I heard the Prophet of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) saying: “The grave is the first stage of the Hereafter, whoever passes it will be at ease afterwards, and if he does not succeed in it, he will be in worst of conditions.” I also heard him saying: “Never have I seen a sight more horrifying than that of grave.”

To the living, the grave is simply an empty, dark hole in the ground, but to the dead it is a window into either Paradise or Hell, where he faces the realities of the Hereafter all by himself. The grave is a place of solitude, and there is no greater isolation than this! What can be a bigger isolation for someone, than being separated from parents, family, and relatives? One leaves back all his possession and wealth and is put in the grave, under gravel and sand? Nothing accompanies the dead in his grave except his deeds, Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “Three things follow a dead man, two of which will return and one will remain with him. His people, his property and his deeds follow him but his people and property return, while his deeds remain with him.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (8/ 521)]

At this time, if one’s deeds are good and righteous, they become for him a good company. Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “(After the questioning) a man with a beautiful face, beautiful garments and sweet odor comes to the righteous slave and says: “Rejoice in what pleases you, for this is your day which you have been promised.” He asks: “Who are you? For your face is perfectly beautiful and brings good.” He replies: “I am your good deeds.” He then says: “My Lord, bring the Last Hour; my Lord bring the Last Hour, so I may return to my people and my property.” Regarding the evildoer, he (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “… a man with an ugly face, ugly garments and an offensive odor comes to him and says: “Be grieved with what displeases you, for this is your day which you have been promised.” He asks: “Who are you? For your face is most ugly and brings evil.” He replies: “I am your wicked deeds.” He then says: “My Lord, do not bring the Last Hour.” [Saheeh al-Jami as-Sageer, 1/1676]

All this and the Hereafter has still not commenced for us. So, let this be a reminder for all to prepare for death by doing good deeds in accordance to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, even if it means to give a trifle in charity. Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “Protect yourself from the Hellfire, even by a part of a date (that is given in charity).” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

After clarifying the good and evil in this world, Allah, the Exalted, has given every man a free will to choose between them. It is up to the individual, whether he takes enough good deeds to accompany him in his grave, or he chooses to carry the burden of evil deeds. This choice of evil and good is only valid as long as one is alive. As death approaches, all deeds come to an end and the person becomes weak and helpless; so helpless that after death he is in need of the living to give him ghusl, shroud him, place him in his grave and make Du’aa for his forgiveness. Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “When the coffin is ready (for its burial) and people lift it on their shoulders, then if the deceased is a righteous person he says, ‘Take me ahead,’ if he is not a righteous one, then he says, ‘Woe to it (me)! Where are you taking it (me)!’ And his voice is audible to everything except human beings; if they heard it they would fall down unconscious.” [Bukharee (2/ 462)]

After knowing the realities of death, how helpless and weak man becomes after death, and how he faces the realities of the Hereafter and witnesses the great Power of Allah… Can a Muslim, who believes that Allah alone has the Power to benefit and harm, accept that a dead man’s soul can come back to this world and help the living? Or after witnessing the Power of Allah the dead would dare to scare the living, harm them, possess them or demand offerings from them, etc…etc…?

Barzakh forbids any Return
Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) have clearly defined to us journey of the soul after death and the abode of both, the disbelieving souls and the righteous souls. This period between the death and the Hereafter is known as ‘Barzakh’. Linguistically, ‘Barzakh’ means a veil, barrier or partition between two things.
Ibn Abbas (radhiallahu anhu) defines Barzakh as a Hijab (a partition of veil). Al-Qurtubi, in his exposition states: ‘The Barzakh is a barrier between two things. It is the stage between this world and the other world – from the time of death until the time Resurrection. Thus, whoever dies enters the Barzakh”
[See al-Qurtubi’s Tafseer, vol.12, p.150] Once the soul enters the realm of Barzakh, there is no return for it back into the world as is clearly known from the Qur’aan and the Ahaadeeth of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).
Allah says regarding the evil soul: “…when death comes to one of them (who joins partners with Allah), he says: “O My Lord! Send me back to life. In order that I may do good deeds in the things that I neglected. By no means! It is but a word he says. And before him is a Barzakh until the day they are raised up.” [Soorah al-Mu’minoon (23): 99-100]
This verse reveals the condition of the disbeliever upon death; when he faces the realities of the Hereafter, he wishes to return back to the world and mend his mistakes, in order to avert the punishment. But he is plainly refused and confined in the grave and punished for his sinful actions because he has entered the Barzakh. It is impossible for him to escape the strong Guardian Angels of Allah and return back to this world.
The abode of the righteous soul is Paradise, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “The soul of a believer is a bird eating from the trees of Paradise until Allah restores it to its body on the Day of Resurrection.” [An-Nasa’ee, Ibn Majah and others. Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albanee Sharh al-Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah (p. 455, footnote: 1)]
It is unlikely that the righteous soul, who is surrounded by the bounties of Allah, would leave the blessings of Allah and come to the world.
Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “No servant who has good in store for him with Allah and dies ever wants to return to the Earth – even if he were to have the whole world and everything that is in it – except for the martyr. That is due to what he sees in the nobility of martyrdom. Verily, he would like to return back to the Earth, in order to be martyred another time.” [(Saheeh) Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1341)]
But as the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) informed, even the martyr is refused the permission to return, he (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “The souls of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. They eat the fruits of Paradise wherever they like and then nestle in these chandeliers. Once, their Lord cast a glance at them and said: “Do you want anything?” They said: “What more can we desire? We eat the fruit of Paradise wherever we like.” Their Lord asked them the same question thrice. When they saw that they would be continued to be asked and not left (without answering the question), they said: “O Lord, we wish that You may return our souls to our bodies so that we may be slain in Your cause once again. When He (Allah) saw that they had no need, they were left (to their joy in Heaven).” [Saheeh Muslim (4651)]

These and many other proofs from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah deny the concept of the soul’s return, and thus there remains no doubt that souls of the dead do not return back to the world.

Observed Phenomenon
If spirits do not return back to this world, then what is the explanation for the Observed Phenomenon, like the physical appearance of the dead, speaking of the souls through medium, and leaving messages for the living using Ouija boards? And how do these spirits answer every question correctly about the life and character of the dead?

Appearing of the Spirits: The alleged appearing of the spirits is an ancient claim. Many a time, it is fabrication simply through deception, trickery, and psychological influence. In other cases, it is done through the use of Jinn. Deception is an old and well-known trick that the Jinn use to mislead mankind; they play with the minds of humans in order to ruin their religion and cause them to commit Shirk. A clear understanding of the topic should help the Muslims not to be deceived by the spiritualists.
The spiritualists, who claim to have contacts with the spirits of the dead from an Islamic point of view, are in fact un-religious and liars. They make contacts with the Jinn through evil incantations and demonic rituals and perform extraordinary feats with ease through them. Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said: “Many of those people (the so called spiritualists) write the Words of Allah in blood or other impure substances. They write or make other statements that are pleasing to Shaytaan.” [See Majmoo al-Fatawa, v.19, p.35]

The Jinn (sing. Jinni): The Jinn are a living creation of Allah, created from smokeless flame of fire. They share the material world with the humans. Though they are invisible to us, they eat and drink with us, and also have the ability to inhabit the human body and influence our thoughts. They are stronger than humans and can take different forms and shapes. Amongst them are Muslims and Kafirs; the Kafir Jinn help their counterpart among the humans in evil acts.

When the spiritualist contacts a Jinni, the Jinni takes advantage of his ability to acquire different forms and adopts the appearance of the dead and pretends to be the returned souls. This is one of the ways by which the Shaytaan attempts to deceive humans and lead them astray. For example, on the Day of the Battle of Badr, a devil came to the polytheist of Quraysh in the shape of Suraqah bin Malik.
This incident is also related in the Qur’aan in Soorah al-Anfal (8): 48: “(Remember) when the Shaytaan (evil Jinn are called Shaytaan meaning ‘devils’) made their (evil) deeds seem fair to them and said: ‘No one of mankind can overcome you this Day (of the battle of Badr) and verily, I am your neighbor (for each and every help).’ But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he ran away and said: ‘Verily, I have nothing to do with you. Verily! I see what you see not. Verily, I fear Allah for Allah is severe in punishment.”

Another incident is related in Saheeh al-Bukharee; a Jinni came to Abu Hurayrah (radhiallahu anhu) several times, when he was in charge of the alms in Ramadan. Abu Hurayrah (radhiallahu anhu) narrates: “Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) ordered me to keep Sadaqah (al-Fitr) of Ramadan. A man came and started taking handfuls of the foodstuff (of the Sadaqah, stealthily). I took hold of him and said: “By Allah, I will take you to Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).” He said: “I am needy and have many dependents, and I am in great need.” I released him, and in the morning Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) asked me: “What did your prisoner do yesterday?” I said: “O Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam)! The person complained of being needy and of having many dependents, so, I pitied him and let him go.” Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “Indeed, he told you a lie and he will come again.” Then the visitor came again and the same episode repeated twice, after which Allah’s Messenger asked: “O Abu Hurayrah! … Do you know whom you were talking to, these three nights?” Abu Hurayrah said: “No!” He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “It was Shaytaan.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee 3/ 505]

Similarly, the Shaytaan makes use of this extraordinary ability of taking the appearance of the dead people, and performs supernatural feats at graves and tombs. People witness these unusual events and increase in the veneration of the dead. Eventually, these unusual events cause people to have faith and hope in the powers of the dead and they call upon the engraved to fulfill their needs instead of Allah and thus commit Shirk…and this is exactly what the Shaytaan (Kafir Jinn) intends.

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said: “To take the graves as idols is the first step towards polytheism; it is why some visitors to graves hear the voices near the graves, see certain visions before them, witness strange forces in operation which are taken for a miracle of some righteous deceased people whereas sometimes they are the Jinn and the Shaytaan. For instance, they observe a grave being cleft and the deceased comes out of it, talks with people and embraces them. Such a thing you will witness near the graves of the Divine Apostles and other people, whereas in reality it is Shaytaan. Indeed, the Shaytaan assumes the form of a human being and says: ‘I am so and so Prophet.’ ‘I am so and so Shaikh’; and he tells a lie… The ignorant person believes that the one who came out of the grave, who caressed him or conversed with him, was the inmate of the grave, or was a righteous person or a Divine person. In contrast to it, a perfect believer knows without any shadow of doubt that he is Shaytaan.” [Kitab al-Wasilah (English Translation) pp. 42]
The Qareen: Every human has been assigned a Jinni to be his constant companion. He is called ‘Qareen’ and he encourages evil desires.
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) once told his companions: “Everyone of you has been assigned a companion from the Jinn.” They asked: “Even you, O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam)!” He replied: “Even me, except that Allah has helped me against him and he has submitted. Now he only tells me to do good.” [Saheeh Muslim]

It is this Qareen, who is responsible for knowing the character and deeds of the dead. For example, during s?©ances (apparently) a Jinni often pretends to contact the dead and allows them to speak to the living. In fact, the Jinn had contacted the Qareen of the dead. The Qareen, who was a constant companion of the dead person and knew his entire life history, will be able to mimic the voice of the deceased and answer any questions accurately (about the dead person’s life), thus fooling those present into believing that they are in the presence of spirits.

In Conclusion, souls of the dead cannot and do not come back to earth, they cannot appear to or converse with the living inhabitants of the Earth. Causing people to believe in the return of the souls is one of the means adopted by Shaytaan to misguide mankind. By pretending to be returned souls of the dead along with the performance of extraordinary feats, they deceive people into believing in the powers of the dead. This has become a religious science of its own having no basis in the Qur’aan or the Sunnah. Ultimately, it leads to the worship of the souls of the dead and in reality worship of the Shaytaan himself. [See Majmoo al-Fatawa v.1/p.359-61]
The Supernatural is thus not the World of Spirits and Lost Souls, but the World of Jinn
Another widespread fallacy is the concept of spirit-possession, during which a supposed spirit (of a dead person) occupies the human body and the individual experiences fits and epilepsy. The Shaytaan has used this false belief so strongly to corrupt people’s Aqeedah that some of those who believe in spirit possession even commit acts of Shirk, like performing un-Islamic rituals and offerings at the tombs, hanging amulets containing words of disbelief, etc. to protect themselves from possession and to seek treatment.
It should be made known that most of these cases are due to psychological illness, mistakenly understood to be spirit-possession. The reason behind the prevalence of this misconception, to some extent, is the practice of some exorcists, who have made exorcism a way of obtaining money from the common masses. They convince people into believing that they have been possessed by spirits and earn money in the name of treatment. However, real cases of possession are very few and they are due to the Jinn, who occupy the human body and not spirits. And Al-hamdulillah, Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) have rightly guided us in this regard; anybody possessed by the Jinn can be cured by the prescribed treatment mentioned in the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam), Insha’Allah.
The Reality : In light of what has preceded (about the soul and its journey after death in the previous article), it can be undoubtedly said that spirits of the dead do not return back to the world after death. Thus, it is not possible that the spirits can possess the human body. The only possible source, which could be involved in possessing human body, is the Jinn.
Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) states in Majmoo al-Fatawa, “The existence of the Jinn is an established fact, according to the Book, the Sunnah and the agreement of the early scholars. Likewise, the penetration of a Jinni into a human body is also an established fact, according to the consensus of leading Sunni scholars. It is also a fact witnessed and experienced by anyone who reflects on it. The Jinni enters the one seized by fits and causes him to speak incomprehensible words, unknown to himself; if the one seized by fits is struck a blow sufficient to kill a camel, he does not feel it.”

Evidence for Jinn Possession

Allah says: “Those who eat Riba (interest) will not stand (on the Day of Judgment) except like the standing of a person beaten by the Shaytaan leading him to insanity (‘mass’).” [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 275]
In this verse, Allah compares the state of those who eat Riba, on the Day of Judgment, with the one beaten by the Shaytan leading him to insanity. The word used in this verse for insanity is ‘mass’, which also means devil possession. Since Allah has made the Qur’aan, the most truthful book, it can never contain a false comparison.
? Therefore, this verse proves the truthfulness of Jinn-possession. Al-Qurtubee writes in his Tafseer of this verse: “This verse contains proof against those who deny the possession by way of Jinn, claiming that it is a result of natural causes, as well as those who claim that Shaytaan does not enter humans nor does he touch them.”
Clear Evidence of Jinn possession from the Sunnah are in a number of authentic tradition, one of which is related by, Ya’la Ibn Murah (radhiallahu anhu), who says: “I saw Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) do three things which no one before or after me saw. I went with him on a trip. On the way, we passed by a woman sitting at the roadside with a young boy. She called out, ‘O Messenger of Allah, this boy is afflicted with a trial, and from him we have also been afflicted with a trial. I don’t know how many times per day he is seized by fits.’ He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: ‘Give him to me.’ So she lifted him up to the Prophet.
He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) then placed the boy between himself and the middle of the saddle, opened the boy’s mouth and blew in it three times, saying, ‘In the name of Allah, I am the slave of Allah, get out, enemy of Allah!’ Then he gave the boy back to her and said: ‘Meet us on our return at this same place and inform us how he has fared.’ We then went. On our return, we found her in the same place with three sheep. When he said to her, ‘How has your son fared?’ She replied: ‘By the One who sent you with the truth, we have not detected anything (unusual) in his behavior up to this time…” [Musnad Ahmad (vol: 4, p. 170), and al-Haakim, who declared it Saheeh]

This authentic narration describes how Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) commanded the Jinn possessing the boy, to leave. Also, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) is reported to have said: “Verily, Shaytaan flows in the blood-streams of Adam’s descendants.” [Saheeh Muslim (vol: 3, no: 5404)]

Causes of Possession
There could be three main reasons for possession, as suggested by Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah):

(a) The occasional possession of man by the Jinn may be due to sensual desires on the part of the Jinn, passions or even love, just as it may be among humans.

(b) Majority of the possessions are the result of hatred and revenge of the Jinn, because of some wrong done to him. For example, when humans accidentally harm or hurt the Jinn by urinating on them, by pouring hot water on them, or by killing some of them, the Jinn think that they have been harmed intentionally. Though humans may not realize what they have done, the Jinn are by nature ignorant, very harsh and unstable in their behavior, so they may revengefully punish humans much more than they actually deserve.

(c) Possession sometimes also occurs as a result of plain evil on the part of the Jinn, just as evil and mischief occurs among humans for similar reasons. [See Majmoo al-Fatawa vol: 19, p. 39]
“Jinn mostly gain control over those who have little religious inclination and those whose hearts and tongues faith has deserted. Those whose souls are desolate of the remembrance of Allah and of the formulas of strengthening faith.”
EXORCISM to Free a human from Jinn-Possession
To exorcize the Jinn is obligatory according to the principles of repelling oppression, aiding the oppressed, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil, just as it is with human. [Shaikh Abdul Aziz Ibn Abdillah al-Baaz, al-Mujtama’ Magazine, no. 830, 18/8/87, p. 39-41]
A question was posed to Ibn Taymiyah (rahimahullah) regarding the subject, he expressed the same view and added: “… In (exorcism) there is also alleviation of grief and suffering of the oppressed. Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) is reported by Abu Hurayrah in Saheeh Muslim (vol: 4, no: 6250) to have said: “Whoever relieves a believer of one of the tragedies of life, Allah will relieve him of one of the calamities of the Day of Resurrection…” Jaabir (radhiallahu anhu) also reported in Saheeh Muslim (vol: 3, no: 5456) that when Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) was asked about incantation, he replied: “Whoever among you is able to help his brother, he should do so.”
However, help should be justly rendered according to the methods prescribed by Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). For example, Islamically based prayers, words and phrases should only be used in the way they were used by the Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) and his Companions. When commanding the Jinn to righteousness and prohibiting it from evil, it should be done in the same way that man is ordered and forbidden. Whatever is allowable in the case of humans is also allowable in the case of Jinn.” [As-Shiblee’s Ahkaam al-Jaann, chapter. 53, p.147-8]
Pre-requisites of the Exorcist:
Treatment of fits due to Jinn possession requires two essential factors from the possessed and the healer.
(a) Turning truthfully to Allah alone and having full conviction that the remembrance of Allah and Qur’aanic recitation will effect the person and the Jinn. The stronger the faith, the stronger will be the effect.
(b) Using correct means to drive the Jinn away, as taught by Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).
For, surely this type of treatment is, in fact, war against the Shaytaan and the warrior will not be able to defeat his enemy unless he fulfills two conditions; that his weapon is sound and sharp, and that his arm is strong. Whenever either of these two conditions is not met, a long sword will be of no value! [See Zaad al-Maa’ad p. 67-69]
“Such a person (who exorcizes the Jinn) is a soldier of Allah, and since exorcism is among the greatest forms of Jihad, he should beware not to help his enemy overcome him by his own sins. If the circumstance is beyond his capacity, he should remember that Allah does not burden a soul beyond its capacity. He should not expose himself to tribulation by taking on what he is unable to handle.” [Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmoo al-Fatawa]
The following are some ways of exorcism, which have been deduced from the practice of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) and the Sahabah (radhiallahu anhum), any of them may be used to drive the Shaytaan away:
(a) If the possession is due to magic, then the most effective way is to find and undo the charm used in bewitchment.
(b) Address the Jinn and inform him that their acts are either abominable or tyrannical.
(c) Cursing the Jinn
(d) Reciting certain Qur’aanic verses or prayers taught by Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam), like Ayat al-Kursee (Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 255), Basmalah (verbal saying of: ‘Bismillah ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem’), Ta’awwuth (saying “I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed Shaytaan), making Adhaan or Iqaamah, etc.
(e) Beating: If the above-mentioned steps fail to bring the desired results, then the exorcist may strike the possessed individual in order to inflict pain on the possessing spirit. These blows fall upon the Jinn and the possessed human does not feel them.
Name: Abdul Majeed Ali Hasan
Profession: Imaam and Khateeb in the Ministry of Islamic Affairs for the U.A.E Government
1: Identify some signs of real possession
Possession implies control over the mind of the possessed person by the Jinn. Allah, the Exalted, has granted Jinn, the power to control the activities and thoughts of the human. Thus, the Jinn during possession controls the intellect power of the possessed in such a way that the possessed looses all power to think and speak from his will. He does not remember his previous sayings or what he is about to say, he may also perform certain abnormal actions, which are beyond human might.
Allah speaks about such possession in the Glorious Qur’aan in Soorah al-Baqarah, verse: 275: “Those who eat Riba (usury) will not stand on the Day of Judgment except like the standing of the person beaten by Shaytaan (Jinn) leading him to insanity…” According to Imam Al-Qurtubee, this verse is an evidence of Jinn possession over human. Also, a number of evidences of Jinn possession can be found in the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger. One of which is reported in Majma’uz Zawaid (9/3-4), where Allah’s Messenger is reported to have performed exorcism.
2: What percentage of the cases you meet is actual possession?
Majority of the cases are due to psychological illness, wrongfully assumed to be possession. Therefore, normally, when an individual is brought to me for treatment, I ask for a medical report. Only when it becomes clear to me that the individual is free from any illness, I start my treatment based on the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.
Many people who come for a treatment do not have any illness or possession, but their sickness is mere imagination, due to watching horror movies and reading novels, which propagate possession.

3: Describe one case of exorcism, which you may have performed.
Al-hamdulillah, I have cured many people who were severely possessed by Jinn. One of them was in the year 1996, when in my mosque after delivering the Friday sermon, a young man was brought to me who was suffering from severe neck pain. The people who brought him to me said that he was unable to straighten his neck after 12.00 pm, and he would shout very loudly due to severe pain. On the first day, I recited over him, Soorah al-Fatihah, the first chapter of the Qur’aan, and Aayat al-Kursee (Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 255) seven times. The man regained his health and walked out of the mosque with no pain at all.
The next day, he was again brought to the mosque complaining of the same neck pain. I took him to my house and recited Soorah al-Fatihah, Aayat al-Kursee, few verses of Soorah al-Jinn, Soorah an-Nas, Soorah al-Falaq, Soorah al-Ikhlas and Soorah al-Kafirun. After a while the man started to snore like a lion, I stopped the recitation and asked him to return back to his house. Suddenly, he started to utter some words in Arabic, which were not clear to me. Once more I started the recitation of Soorah al-Jinn and he shouted: “Do not read it… it burns me inside.” I asked him his name, he replied: ‘Muhammad.’ I was shocked because Muhammad was not the name of the man possessed… it was the Jinn speaking. Al-hamdulillah, I asked Allah’s Help and made Dawah to him. I explained to him the importance of his name and that it is wrong on the part of a Muslim to hurt his Muslim brothers. I inquired about the reason why he possessed the man and he said: “This man urinated on my head in the Rasal Kahimah Roundabout.” This Roundabout is very close to my mosque, where people usually gather and sit.
I then requested him to forgive the man, since his act was unintentional and he did not see the Jinn. Al-hamdulillah, he agreed to leave the body and work as a good Muslim. He also promised to never hurt anybody after this, and establish regular prayers. Then, he left… Al-hamdulillah.
4: How do you protect yourself from possession?
A number of Ahaadeeth mention Du’aa (supplications), which prevent the Shaytaan from harming us, I strictly adhere to them. From among them is as Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said that Shaytaan runs away when Adhaan or Iaqamah is pronounced, I always make sure to answer the Adhaan, which is also mentioned in the Hadeeth to be a way of preventing Shaytaan.
(b) Reciting the last two verses of Soorah al-Baqarah every night,
(c) reciting Aayat al-Kursee as is the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam)
(d) reciting the last four Soorahs of the Qur’aan
(e) Morning and Evening Supplications,
(f) supplications before entering the bathroom and after coming out of it, supplication upon wearing clothes, upon entering the house, and others which are mentioned in the Sunnah.

(by “AHYA.ORG – Authentic Islamic Resources and Information” with thanks)



How did Islam solve the problem of racism?

Racism is one of the severe diseases of human society in this age. When God’s Messenger was raised as a Prophet, one kind of racism, under the name of tribalism, was prevalent in Makka. The Quraysh considered themselves in particular, and Arabs in general, superior to all the other peoples of the world. God’s Messenger came with the Divine Message and proclaimed that no Arab is superior over a non-Arab, and no white is superior over black [1] and superiority is by righteousness and God-fearing alone (sura al-Hujurat, 49.13). He also declared that even if an Abyssinian black Muslim were to rule over Muslims, he should be obeyed [2].

God’s Messenger eradicated the problem of racial or colour discrimination so successfully that, for example, ‘Umar once said of Bilal: “Bilal is our master, and was emancipated by our master Abu Bakr” [3]. Zayd ibn Haritha was a black slave. God’s Messenger emancipated him and, before the banning of adoption by the Qur’an, adopted him. He married him to Zaynab bint Jahsh, one of the noblest women of the Muslim community. After all these honors he conferred on him, he also appointed him as a commander over the Muslim army he sent against the Byzantine Empire and which included the leading figures of the Companions such as Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and others [4]. The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, appointed Zayd’s son, Usama, to command the army he formed just before his passing away.

During his Caliphate, ‘Umar paid a higher salary to Usama than to his own son, ‘Abd Allah, who asked why. ‘Umar answered: “My son, I do so, because I know well that God’s Messenger loved Usama’s father more than yours and Usama himself more than you” [5].

Zayd ibn Haritha commanded an army in which the noblest of the Quraysh, like Ja’far ibn Abu Talib, the cousin of God’s Messenger, and Khalid ibn Walid, the invincible general of the age, were present. The army commanded by Usama, Zayd’s son, included leading figures among the Companions such as Khalid, Abu ‘Ubayda, Talha, Zubayr and others. This established in the hearts and minds that superiority is not by birth or colour or blood, but by God-fearing and righteousness.


Allah is Beautiful & Loves Beauty

From ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) who said that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “No one will enter Paradise who has an atom’s weight of pride in his heart.” A man said, “What if a man likes his clothes to look good and his shoes to look good?” He said, “Allaah is beautiful and loves beauty. Pride means denying the truth and looking down on people.” [1] ……

Ibnul-Qayyim (d.751H) – may Allah bless him- said, commenting upon this hadeeth: ”The phrase ‘Allaah is beautiful and loves beauty,’ includes the beautiful clothing which was asked about in the same hadeeth. It is included by way of generalization, meaning that beauty in all things is what is meant here. In Saheeh Muslim, it says: “Allaah is good and only accepts that which is good.” [2] In Sunanut-Tirmidhee it says: “Allaah loves to see the effects of His blessing on His slave.” [3] It was reported that Abul-Ahwas al-Jashamee said: The Prophet
(sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw me wearing old, tattered clothes, and asked me, “Do you have any wealth?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “What kind of wealth?” I said, “All that Allaah has given me of camels and sheep.” He said, “Then show the generous blessings that He has given you.” [4] Allaah, may He be glorified, loves the effects of His blessings to His slave to be made manifest, for this is part of the beauty that He loves, and that is part of the gratitude for His blessings which forms an inner beauty (beauty of character). Allaah loves to see the external beauty of His slaves which reflects His blessings on them, and the inner beauty of their gratitude to Him for those blessings. Because He loves beauty, He sends down on His slaves clothes and adornments with which they may make their outward appearance beautiful and He gives them taqwaa which makes their inner characters beautiful. Allaah says:

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment, and the raiment of righteousness, that is better.” [Sooratul-A’raaf 7:26]

And He says, speaking of the people of Paradise:

“.and He gave them Nadrataan (a light of beauty) and joy. And their recompense shall be Paradise and silken garments, because they were patient.” [Sooratul-Insaan 76:11-12]

Their faces will be made beautiful with the nadrah (light of beauty), their innermost being with joy and their bodies with silken garments. Just as Allaah loves beauty in words, deeds, garments and outward appearance, so He hates ugliness in words, deeds, garments and outward appearance. He hates ugliness and its people, and loves beauty and its people. But two groups are misguided with regard to this issue: a group who say that everything that He has created is beautiful, so He loves all that He has created and we should love all that He has created and not hate anything. They say: whoever realizes that all that exists comes from Him will see that it is beautiful. these people have no sense of jealousy for the sake of Allaah or hatred and enmity for the sake of Allaah, or denouncing what is evil (munkar), or jihaad (struggle) for the sake of Allaah, or adhering His limits. They regard the beauty of images, male or female, as being part of the beauty that Allaah loves, and seek to worship Allaah through immoral acts. Some of them may even go so far as to claim that the One Whom they worship is manifested or incarnated in those images.

The second group, on the other hand, say that Allaah condemns the beauty of images, forms and outward appearances. Allaah says about the munaafiqoon (hypocrites):

“And when you look at them, their bodies please you.” [Sooratul-Munaafiqoon 63:4]

“And how many a generation have We destroyed before them. Who were better in wealth, goods and outward appearance?” [Soorah Maryam 19:54]

In Saheeh Muslim it is reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allaah does not look at your outward appearance and your wealth, rather He looks at your hearts and deeds.” [5]

According to another hadeeth: “Shabbiness is part of faith.” [6] Allaah condemns those who are extravagant, which applies to extravagance in clothing as well as in food and drink.

In order to settle this dispute, we may say that beauty in clothing and outward appearance is of three types, one of which is commendable, one is blameworthy and one of which is neither. The kind of beauty which is to be commended is that which is done for the sake of Allaah, to help one to obey Allaah and fulfil His commands, such as when the Prophet
(sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made himself look beautiful (i.e. handsome) when meeting the delegations that came to him. This is like wearing armour or battle-dress when fighting, or wearing silk and showing off (in front of the enemy). This is commendable because it is done to make the word of Allaah supreme and to support His religion and annoy His enemies. The blameworthy kind of beauty is that which is done for the sake of this world, for reasons of power, false pride and showing off, or to fulfil some (selfish) desires. This also includes cases where beauty is an end in itself for a person and is all he cares about. Many people have no other concern in life. As for the kind of beauty which is neither commendable nor blameworthy, it is that which has nothing to do with either of the two purposes mentioned above (i.e., it is neither for the sake of Allaah nor for the sake of worldly purposes).

The hadeeth under discussion refers to two important principles, knowledge and behaviour. Allaah is to be acknowledged for beauty that bears no resemblance to anything else, and He is to be worshipped by means of the beauty which He loves in words, deeds and attitudes. He loves His slaves to beautify their tongues with the truth, to beautify their hearts with sincere devotion (ikhlaas), love, repentance and trust in Him, to beautify their faculties with obedience, and to beautify their bodies by showing His blessings upon them in their clothing and by keeping them pure and free of any filth, dirt or impurity, by removing the hairs which should be removed, by circumcision, and by clipping the nails. Thus they recognize Allaah through these qualities of beauty and seek to draw close to Him through beautiful words, deeds and attitudes. They acknowledge Him for the beauty which is His attribute and they worship Him through the beauty which He has prescribed and His religion. The hadeeth combines these two principles of knowledge and behaviour.” [7]   (From “Islam Way” with thanks )


The Conditions of Laa ilaaha illa-Allaah

Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

The first condition is knowledge, in the sense of negating what is negated in the Shahaadah and affirming what is affirmed therein – as opposed to being ignorant of that.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meanings):
{So know (O Muhammad) that Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah)…} [Muhammad 47:19].

{except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly” – i.e., that there is no god except Allaah (laa ilaaha ill-Allaah) – {and they know} – in their hearts the meaning of the words that they utter with their lips}. [al-Zukhruf 43:86]

It is narrated in al-Saheeh from ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah :saw) peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «Whoever dies knowing that there is no god except Allaah will enter Paradise» [Muslim].

The second condition is certainty, in the sense that the one who says these words is absolutely certain of their meaning. Faith is not sufficient unless it is based on certain knowledge with no element of speculation, let alone doubt.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
{Only those are the believers who have believed in Allaah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allaah. Those! They are the truthful} [al-Hujuraat 49:15].

The sincerity of their faith in Allaah and His Messenger is conditional upon there being no element of doubt therein, As for the doubter, he is one of the hypocrites.

In al-Saheeh it is narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allaah :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «Bear witness that there is no god except Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah, for no person meets Allaah with these two, not doubting in them, but he will enter Paradise» [Muslim]. According to another report: «No person meets Allaah with these two, not doubting in them, and is denied Paradise» [Muslim].

And it was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah in a lengthy hadeeth that the Prophet :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent him and said: «Whoever you meet behind this wall who bears witness that there is no god except Allaah, believing in it with certainty in his heart, then give him the glad tidings of Paradise» ]Muslim].

Thus we see that a person’s entering Paradise for saying these words is conditional upon his believing in them with certainty in his heart, with no element of doubt. If this condition is not met the target is not met.

The third condition is acceptance and submission to what these words imply, both in one’s heart as well as verbally. Allaah has told us the stories of those who came before, who were saved by their acceptance of these words from the punishment of those who had rejected them.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
{(It will be said to the angels):{Assemble those who did wrong, together with their companions (from the devils) and what they used to worship,
Instead of Allaah, and lead them on to the way of flaming Fire (Hell); But stop them, verily, they are to be questioned. What is the matter with you? Why do you not help one another (as you used to do in the world)?’ Nay, but that Day they shall surrender. And they will turn to one another and question one another. They will say: ‘It was you who used to come to us from the right side (i.e., from the right side of one of us and beautify for us every evil, enjoin on us polytheism, and stop us from the truth, i.e. Islamic Monotheism and from every good deed).’ They will reply: ‘Nay, you yourselves were not believers. And we had no authority over you. Nay! But you were Taaghoon (transgressing) people (polytheists, and disbelievers). So now the Word of our Lord has been justified against us, that we shall certainly (have to) taste (the torment). So we led you astray because we were ourselves astray.’ Then verily, that Day, they will (all) share in the torment. Certainly, that is how We deal with Al-Mujrimoon (polytheists, sinners, disbelievers, criminals, the disobedient to Allaah). Truly, when it was said to them: Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (none has the right “to be worshipped but Allaah),” they puffed themselves up with pride (i.e. denied it). And (they) said: ‘Are we going to abandon our aalihah (gods) for the sake of a mad poet?’} [al-Saffaat 37:22-36].

So Allaah has made the reason and cause of their punishment their arrogant refusal to say Laa ilaah ill-Allaah, and their disbelief in the one who brought this message, so that they did not negate what this word negates and they did not affirm what it affirms, rather they said, arrogantly denouncing:
{Has he made the aalihah (gods) (all) into One Ilaah (God — Allaah). Verily, this is a curious thing!’ And the leaders among them went about (saying): ‘Go on, and remain constant to your aalihah (gods)! Verily, this is a thing designed (against you)!’} [Saad 38:5].

So Allaah showed them to be liars and threw their words back at them through the words of His Messenger :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

He said (interpretation of the meaning):
{Nay! he (Muhammad) has come with the truth (i.e. Allaah’s religion — Islamic Monotheism and this Qur’aan) and he confirms the Messengers (before him who brought Allaah’s religion — Islamic Monotheism)} [al-Saffaat 37:37].

Then He said concerning those who accept it (interpretation of the meaning):
{Save the chosen slaves of Allaah (i.e. the true believers of Islamic Monotheism). For them there will be a known provision (in Paradise), Fruits; and they shall be honoured, In the Gardens of Delight (Paradise)} [al-Saffaat 37:40-43].

In al-Saheeh it is narrated from Abu Moosa (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «The guidance and knowledge with which Allaah has sent me is like abundant rain which falls on the land. Some of the land absorbs the water and brings forth much grass and vegetation. And some of (the rain) falls on another part of the land which is like a smooth plain and does not hold the water, so no vegetation grows. That is the likeness of the one who understands the religion of Allaah and benefits from that with which Allaah has sent me, so he learns and acts, and the likeness of the one who pays no heed and does not accept the guidance of Allaah with which I have been sent» [Narrated By Muslim].

The fourth condition is following that which is indicated, as opposed to not following it.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
{And whosoever submits his face (himself) to Allaah, while he is a Muhsin (good-doer, i.e. performs good deeds totally for Allaah’s sake), then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold” – i.e., Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah – “And to Allaah return all matters for decision} [Luqmaan 31:22].

What is meant by “submitting one’s face” is following, when one is also a doer of good and a believer in Tawheed. Whoever does not submit his face to Allaah and is not a doer of good has not grasped the most trustworthy handhold.

This is what is meant by the following aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
{And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you (O Muhammad). To Us is their return, and We shall inform them what they have done…} [Luqmaan 31:23].

According to a saheeh hadeeth, the Messenger of Allaah :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «none of you truly believes until his desire is in accordance with that which I have brought This is the ultimate meaning of following» [Narrated By Al-Nawawi & Ibn Ragab and was classified as weak by Al-Albanni].

The fifth condition is truthfulness, as opposed to lying.
This means that one says it (Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah) sincerely from the heart, with harmony between what is in the heart and what is said on the lips.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
{Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: ‘We believe,’ and will not be tested.
And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allaah will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars, (although Allaah knows all that before putting them to test)} [al-‘Ankaboot 29:2-3].

And He said concerning the hypocrites who spoke these words falsely (interpretation of the meaning):
{And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: ‘We believe in Allaah and the Last Day,’ while in fact they believe not. They (think to) deceive Allaah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not! In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allaah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies} [al-Baqarah 2:8-10].

In al-Saheehayn it is narrated from Mu’aadh ibn Jabal (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «there is no one who bears witness that there is no god except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, sincerely from the heart, but Allaah will make him forbidden for the Fire».

The sixth condition is sincerity, which means that actions are free from any element of shirk.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
{Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allaah only} [al-Zumar 39:3].

{Say (O Muhammad): ‘Allaah Alone I worship by doing religious deeds sincerely for His sake only’} [al-Zumar 39:14].

In al-Saheeh it is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «The most deserving of my intercession are those who say Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah sincerely from the heart or from the soul» [Narrated By Al-Bukhari].

The seventh condition is love for this word and for what it implies and indicates, and love for the people who act upon it and adhere to its conditions and hate whoever or whatever goes against it.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
{And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allaah as rivals (to Allaah). They love them as they love Allaah} [al-Baqarah 2:165].

Allaah tells us that those who believe love Allaah more, because they do not associate anything with Him in that love, as is done by those among the mushrikeen who claim to love Him but who also take others as rivals to Him whom they love as they love Him.

In al-Saheehayn it is narrated from Anas that the Messenger of Allaah :saw (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «No one of you truly believes until I am more beloved to him that his son, his father and all of mankind».…hp/t-7517.html

(From “Islam Way” with thanks )

Omar ibn al-Khattab Journey to Islam



Omar was twenty seven when the Holy Prophet began his mission. Young Omar was one of those who did not care to listen to the message of Islam. He was for the old way of life. As years went by, Islam made a slow headway.

This made Omar angry. Do what the Makkan(1) chiefs might, people who once went over to Islam never went back to their old faith. One of Omar’s own maid-servants became a Muslim. He beat her as much as he could, but she would not give up the new faith.

At last in the sixth year of the Mission, a number of Muslims left for Abyssinia. This made Omar boil with rage. “Here is a man,” he thought to himself “who has split the people. People lived smoothly enough. He appeared on the scene He has torn son from father and brother from brother. Now his followers are running away to another land. Surely Muhammad is the cause of all trouble. I must slay him and put an end to the trouble.”

With this resolve Omar drew his sword and set out to kill the Holy Prophet. On the way he met a friend who asked him why he looked so upset. Omar told him what he was going to do. “You better take care of your own kin first,” said the friend, “Your sister and her husband have gone over to Islam.”

These words changed the direction of Omar’s anger. He went straight to the house of his sister, Fatima. He knocked at the door. Someone was reciting the Quran inside. Fatima was terrified when she heard Omar’s voice. She hid the portion of the Quran she was reading and opened the door.

“What was it that you were reciting just now?” Omar demanded.

“Oh nothing,” said the sister.

“Why nothing?” he shouted in rage.

“I have heard it alright. I know you both have accepted Muhammad’s faith.”

Saying this, he began to beat his brother-in-law, Saeed. Fatima ran to his help and got a blow to the head. The head began to bleed. This made the couple bold. “Yes, we have become Muslims,” they shouted at Omar. “Do what you will.”

The sight of the bleeding sister deeply moved Omar. Fatima was such a loving sister! Surely there must be some great truth in the Quran which had won her innocent heart. “Would you let me have a look at the Quran?” said Omar.

Fatima handed him the few pages of the book she had.

Omar sat down to study the pages. Soon his face changed. His anger cooled down. The fear of Allah gripped his heart. He wept and declared, “Surely this is the word of Allah. I bear witness that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah.”(2)

Omar was again on his way to the place of the Holy Prophet. But he was a changed man. He was not going to slay him but to embrace his faith.

The Holy Prophet was sitting in the company of some men. He saw Omar coming and asked, “Omar, what brings you here?”

“O Prophet of Allah!” replied Omar, “I have come to embrace Islam.”

Great was the joy of the Holy Prophet and his followers. Loud shouts of “Allah is Great” rented the air of Mecca. Soon everyone knew that Omar was no longer an enemy of Islam. It was a great day for Islam because one of its bitterest enemies had become its staunch follower.


Islam and Muslims

The word “Islam” is an Arabic word which means “submission to the will of God”.  This word comes from the same root as the Arabic word “salam”, which means “peace”.  As such, the religion of Islam teaches that in order to achieve true peace of mind and surety of heart, one must submit to God and live according to His Divinely revealed Law.  The most important truth that God revealed to mankind is that there is nothing divine or worthy of being worshipped except for Almighty God, thus all human beings should submit to Him.

The word “Muslim” means one who submits to the will of God, regardless of their race, nationality or ethnic background.  Being a Muslim entails wilful submission and active obedience to God, and living in accordance with His message.  Some people mistakenly believe that Islam is just a religion for Arabs, but nothing could be further from the truth.  Not only are there converts to Islam in every corner of the world, especially in England and America, but by taking a look at the Muslim World from Bosnia to Nigeria, and from Indonesia to Morocco, one can clearly see that Muslims come from many various races, ethnic groups and nationalities.  It is also interesting to note that in actuality, more than 80% of all Muslims are not Arabs – there are more Muslims in Indonesia than in the whole Arab World!  So, though even though it is true that most Arabs are Muslims, the large majority of Muslims are not Arabs.  However, anyone who submits completely to God and worships Him alone is a Muslim.
Continuity of the Message

Islam is not a new religion because “submission to the will of God”, i.e. Islam, has always been the only acceptable religion in the sight of God.  For this reason, Islam is the true “natural religion”, and it is the same eternal message revealed through the ages to all of God’s prophets and messengers.  Muslims believe that all of God’s prophets, which include Abraham, Noah, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, brought the same message of Pure Monotheism.  For this reason, the Prophet Muhammad was not the founder of a new religion, as many people mistakenly think, but he was the final Prophet of Islam.  By revealing His final message to Muhammad, which is an eternal and universal message for all of mankind, God finally fulfilled the covenant that He made with Abraham, who was one of the earliest and greatest prophets.

Sufficient is it to say that the way of Islam is the same as the way of the prophet Abraham, because both the Bible and the Quran portray Abraham as a towering example of someone who submitted himself completely to God and worshipped Him without intermediaries.  Once this is realized, it should be clear that Islam has the most continuous and universal message of any religion, because all prophets and messengers were “Muslims”, i.e.  those who submitted to God’s will, and they preached “Islam”, i.e. submission to the will of Almighty God.
The Oneness of God

The foundation of the Islamic faith is belief in the Oneness of Almighty God – the God of Abraham, Noah, Moses and Jesus.  Islam teaches that a pure belief in One God is intuitive in human beings and thus fulfils the natural inclination of the soul.  As such, Islam’s concept of God is straightforward, unambiguous and easy to understand.  Islam teaches that the hearts, minds and souls of human beings are fitting receptacles for clear divine revelation, and that God’s revelations to man are not clouded by self-contradictory mysteries or irrational ideas.  As such, Islam teaches that even though God cannot be fully comprehended and grasped by our finite human minds, He also does not expect us to accept absurd or demonstrably false beliefs about Him.

According to the teachings of Islam, Almighty God is absolutely One and His Oneness should never be compromised by associating partners with Him – neither in worship nor in belief.  Due to this, Muslims are required to maintain a direct relationship with God, and therefore all intermediaries are absolutely forbidden.  From the Islamic standpoint, believing in the Oneness of God means to realize that all prayer and worship should be exclusively for God, and that He alone deserves such titles as “Lord” and “Saviour”.  Some religions, even though they believe in “One God”, do not make all of their worship and prayers for Him alone.  Also, they also give the title of “Lord” to beings that are not All-Knowing, All-Powerful and Un-Changing – even according to their own scriptures.  Suffice it to say that according to Islam, it is not enough that people believe that “God is One”, but they must actualize this belief by proper conduct.

In short, in the Islamic concept of God, which is completely based on Divine Revelation, there is no ambiguity in divinity – God is God and man is man.  Since God is the only Creator and continual Sustainer of the Universe, He is transcendent above His creation – the Creator and the creature never mix.  Islam teaches that God has a unique nature and that He is free from gender, human weaknesses and beyond anything which human beings can imagine.  The Quran teaches that the signs and proofs of God’s wisdom, power and existence are evident in the world around us.  As such, God calls on man to ponder over the creation in order to build a better understanding of his Creator.  Muslims believe that God is Loving, Compassionate and Merciful, and that He is concerned with the daily affairs of human beings.  In this, Islam strikes a unique balance between false religious and philosophical extremes.  Some religions and philosophies portray God as just an impersonal “Higher Power” who is uninterested, or unaware, of the life of each individual human.  Other religions tend to give God human qualities and teach that He is present in His creation, by being incarnate in someone, something – or even everything.  In Islam, however, Almighty God has clarified the truth by letting mankind know that He is “Compassionate”, “Merciful”, “Loving” and the “Answerer of Prayers”.  But He has also emphasized strongly that “there is nothing like unto Him”, and that He is high above time, space and His creation.  Finally, it should be mentioned that the God that Muslims worship is the same God that Jews and Christians worship – because there is only one God.  It is unfortunate that some people mistakenly believe that Muslims worship a different God than Jews and Christians, and that “Allah” is just the “god of the Arabs”.  This myth, which has been propagated by the enemies of Islam, is completely false since the word “Allah” is simply the Arabic name for Almighty God.  It is the same word for God which is used by Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians.  However, it should be clarified that even though Muslims worship the same God as Jews and Christian, their concept of Him differs somewhat from the beliefs of other religions – mainly because it is based completely on Divine Revelation from God.  For example, Muslims reject the Christian belief that God is a Trinity, not only because the Quran rejects it, but also because if this was God’s true nature, He would have clearly revealed it to Abraham, Noah, Jesus and all of the other prophets.


The Two Testimonies of Faith(Shahaadataan)

* The Meaning of Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah
* The Meanings of the Shahaadah
* The Conditions of the Shahaadah
* The Testimony that ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’ and what it Necessitates

The Meaning of Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah

This is the phrase of Tawheed . For this concept, Allah brought the creation into being, and for this concept He created Jannah and Hellfire. Allah says:

“And I have neither created the Jinn nor humans except to worship Me.” (51:56)

This is the belief which all Prophets and Messengers called their peoples to, from Adam to the last of them, Muhammad, may Allah exalt their mention and render them safe from every derogatory thing. Allah says:

“And we have not sent before you any messenger except that We have revealed to him that there is no deity that is worshipped in truth except Me, so worship and obey Me.” (10:25)
The Meanings of the Shahaadah

The first testimony,

that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah,

includes the following meanings:


Allah is the One Who deserves to be worshipped. Allah says:

“No doubt! Verily, to Allah belongs whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth. And those who worship and invoke others besides Allah, in fact they follow not the (Allah’s so-called) partners, they follow only a conjecture and they only invent lies.” (10:66)

Allah is the Creator of all that exists. Allah says:

“Such is Allah, your Lord! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of all things. So worship and obey Him (Alone), and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian, etc.) over all things.” (6:102)

Allah is the Proprietor of all that exists, and the Disposer of all affairs. Allah says:

“Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, Jinns and all that exists)!” (7:54)

To Him belongs the beautiful names and perfect attributes. Far removed is He from every imperfection.

Allah says:

“And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” (7:180)
The Conditions of the Shahaadah

It is not enough to merely utter the Shahaadah for it to be accepted by Allah. It is a key to the gates of Jannah, but in order for the key to work, it needs to have the right notches. The Shahaadah must meet the following conditions for it to be accepted by Allah:


Knowledge: Comprises knowing that all things worshipped besides Allah are false. There is no god worshipped in truth except Allah, even if it be a prophet, a messenger or an angel. Allah is the only One Who deserves all types of worship, such as prayer [Salaah], supplication (du‘aa), hope, sacrificial slaughtering, making oaths, etc. Whoever assigns any act of worship to other than Allah while that person intends to worship or aggrandize the one who he assigned it to has committed kufr , even if he uttered the Shahaadataan.

Certainty: The heart must be firmly certain of the meaning of the two Shahaadah. Certainty is the opposite of doubt, so there is no room for a person to doubt or waver in his belief. Allah says:

“The believers are only those who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not, and strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allah. Those are the truthful.” (49:15)

Acceptance: One should accept the Shahaadah fully, and not reject it. Allah says:

“Truly, when it was said to them, “Laa ilaaha ill-Allah (no deity is worshipped in truth except Allah),” they puff themselves up with pride (i.e. deny it).” (37:35)

Submission, obedience and acting upon all what the Shahaadah necessitates. A person must do what Allah ordered and abstain from what He prohibited. Allah says:

“And whosoever submits his face to Allah, while he is a Muhsin (doer of good) then he has grasped the most trustworthy hand¬hold [La ilaha ill-Allah]. And to Allah return all matters for decision.” (37:35)

Truthfulness: One must be truthful in professing the shahaadah. Allah says:

“They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts.” (48:11)

Sincerity of worship: One must sincerely dedicate all acts of worship to Allah alone. Allah says:

“And they were not commanded except to worship Allah, following the religion purely and sincerely for Him, turning away from other religions.” (98:5)

Love: One must love the shahaadah and all that it necessitates. He must love Allah, His Messenger, and His righteous slaves. He must hate and show enmity towards all who show enmity to Allah and His Messenger. He must prefer what Allah and His Messenger love, even if it is differs from his desires. Allah says:

“Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight… are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and fighting in His Cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are Al-Faasiqoon (the rebellious and disobedient to Allah).” (9:24)

The Shahaadah also necessitates that Allah is the only One Who has the right to legislate, whether it be in matters concerning worship or those concerning human relations, in both individual and public matters. The act of making something prohibited or lawful is for Allah alone. His Messenger (peace be upon him) merely explained and clarified Allah’s commandments. Allah says:

“And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).” (59:

(13)What is the difference between Sadaka and Zakaah ?



Praise be to Allaah.

Zakaah in Arabic means growth, blessing and purification.

See Lisaan al-‘Arab, 14/358;, 2/399

Sadaqah comes from the word sidq (sincerity), i.e. it is a sign of sincerity of faith on the part of the person who gives it.

See Fath al-Qadeer, 2/399

With regard to the shar’i definition:

Zakaah means worshipping Allaah by giving that which He has enjoined of different kinds of zakaah to those who are entitled to them, according to the guidelines prescribed in sharee’ah.

Sadaqah means worshipping Allaah by giving money without that being made obligatory in sharee’ah. The word sadaqah is sometimes used to refer to obligatory zakaah.

With regard to the difference between zakaah and sadaqah, it is as follows:

1 – Zakaah is enjoined in Islam on specific things, which are: gold, silver, crops, fruits, trade goods and an’aam livestock, i.e., camels, cattle and sheep.

With regard to sadaqah, it is not obligatory on any kind of wealth, rather it is what a person can give, without any specific limits or guidelines.

2 – Zakaah is subject to the conditions that one full Hijri have passed since acquiring the wealth, and that the wealth meet the minimum threshold (nisaab), and it is a specific portion of wealth.

Sadaqah is not subject to any conditions, and it may be given at any time, in any amount.

3 – Allaah has enjoined that zakaah be given to certain types of people, and it is not permissible to give it to anyone else. They are the people mentioned in the verse (interpretation of the meaning):

“As-Sadaqaat (here it means Zakaah) are only for the Fuqaraa’ (poor), and Al‑Masaakeen (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allaah’s Cause (i.e. for Mujaahidoon — those fighting in a holy battle), and for the wayfarer (a traveller who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allaah. And Allaah is All-Knower, All-Wise”

[al-Tawbah 9:60]

With regard to sadaqah, it may be given to those mentioned in the verse on zakaah and to others.

4 – Whoever dies and owes zakaah, his heirs must pay it from his wealth, and that takes precedence over the will (wasiyah) and inheritance.

As for sadaqah, there are no such obligations with regard to it.

5 – The one who withholds zakaah is to be punished, as it says in the hadeeth narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh (987) from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no owner of treasure who does not pay his zakaah, but it will be heated in the Fire of Hell and made into plates with which his sides and forehead will be branded until Allaah passes judgement between His slaves on a Day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years, then he see shown his path and whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell. And there is no owner of camels who does not pay zakaah on them, but a soft sandy plain will be prepared for him and they will be made to step on him. Every time the last of them has gone the first of them will return, until Allaah passes judgement between His slaves on a Day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years, then he will see his path and whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell. And there is no owner of sheep who does not pay zakaah on them but a soft sandy plain will be prepared for him, and he will find none of them missing, with twisted horns or without horns or with broken horns, and they will be made to gore him with their horns and trample him with their hooves. Every time the last of them has gone the first of them will return, until Allaah passes judgement between His slaves on a Day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years, then he will see his path and whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell…”

With regard to sadaqah, the one who does not pay it will not be punished.

6 – According to the four schools of law, it is not permissible to give zakaah to one’s ascendants or descendents. Ascendants include one’s mother, father, grandfathers and grandmothers; descendents include one’s children and their children.

Sadaqah may be given to one’s ascendants and descendants.

7 – It is not permissible to give zakaah to one who is rich or who is strong and able to earn a living.

It was narrated that ‘Ubayd-Allaah ibn ‘Adiyy said: Two men told me that they came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) during the Farewell Pilgrimage when he was distributing the zakaah and asked him for some of it. He looked them up and down, and saw that they were strong and able-bodied. He said, “If you wish, I will give you some, but those who are rich or strong and able to earn have no share of it.”

Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1633; al-Nasaa’i, 2598; classed as saheeh by Imam Ahmad and others.

See Talkhees al-Habeer, 3/108

Sadaqah may be given to those who are rich and those who are strong and able to earn.

8 – In the case of zakaah, it is better for it to be taken from the rich of a land and given to their poor. Many scholars are of the view that it is not permissible to send it to another country unless that serves an interest.

But charity may be spent on those who are near and those who are far.

9 – It is not permissible to give zakaah to kuffaar and mushrikeen.

Sadaqah may be given to kuffaar and mushrikeen.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And they give food, in spite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to the Miskeen (the poor), the orphan, and the captive”

[al-Insaan 76:8]

Al-Qurtubi said: In dar al-Islam (the Muslim lands), a captive could only be a mushrik.

10 – It is not permissible for a Muslim to give zakaah to his wife. Ibn al-Mundhir narrated that there was scholarly consensus on this point.

But sadaqah may be given to one’s wife.

These are some of the differences between zakaah and sadaqah.

The word sadaqah may be applied to all kinds of good deeds. Al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Saheeh: “Chapter: every good deed is a charity” then he narrated from Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Every good deed is a charity.”

Ibn Battaal said: This hadeeth indicates that every good thing that a person does or says is recorded for him as an act of charity.

Al-Nawawi said: The Prophet’s words “Every good deed is a charity” means that it is like charity in reward.

And Allaah knows best.


Ahaadeeth about the virtue of sadaqah (charity)


We have a weekly lesson here and every week we try to encourage the sisters to make sodaqa for some of the very poor muslims living in other countries .If you could provide ahadith and sayings of the scholars about the rewards on the day of judgement and in paradise for those who give sodaqo that will help us in encouraging the sisters and raising more money inshaallaah

Praise be to Allaah.

There follow some of the shar’i texts which you could quote in order to encourage giving in charity. We ask Allaah to benefit you thereby and decree reward for you.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers)”
[al-Baqarah 2:254]

“The likeness of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allaah, is as the likeness of a grain (of corn); it grows seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. Allaah gives manifold increase to whom He wills. And Allaah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.

262. Those who spend their wealth in the Cause of Allaah, and do not follow up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury, their reward is with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve”

[al-Baqarah 2:261-262]

“O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein. And know that Allaah is Rich (Free of all needs), and Worthy of all praise”

[al-Baqarah 2:267]

“Believe in Allaah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and spend of that whereof He has made you trustees. And such of you as believe and spend (in Allaah’s way), theirs will be a great reward”

[al-Hadeed 57:7]

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever gives charity equal to a date from good (halal) earnings – for Allaah does not accept anything but that which is good – Allaah will take it in His right hand and tend it for the one who gave it as any one of you tends his foal, until it becomes like a mountain.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1344; Muslim, 1014.

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no day on which the people get up but two angels come down and one of them says, ‘O Allaah, give in compensation to the one who spends (in charity),’ and the other says, ‘O Allaah, destroy the one who withholds.’”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1374; Muslim, 1010.

It was narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went out – on Eid al-Fitr or Eid al-Adha – to the prayer place, and when he had finished (the prayer) he preached to the people and enjoined them to give charity. He said, “O people, give in charity!” Then he went over to the women and said, “O women, give in charity for I have seen that you are the majority of the people of Hell.” When he went home, Zaynab the wife of Ibn Mas’ood came seeking permission to see him. It was said, “O Messenger of Allaah, here is Zaynab.” He said, “Which Zaynab?” It was said, “The wife of Ibn Mas’ood.” He said, “Yes, let her in.” So they let her in and she said, “O Prophet of Allaah, today you enjoined charity, and I have some jewellery which I wanted to give in charity, but Ibn Mas’ood claims that he and his child have more right to receive it in charity.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Give it in charity to Ibn Mas’ood, for your husband and your child have the most right that you should give it to them in charity.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1393; Muslim, 80.

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah said: ‘Spend, O son of Adam, and I shall spend on you.’”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5073; Muslim, 993.

And Allaah is the Source of strength



Quran and the’ fall’ of Man

by Dr. Riffat Hasan

IT IS commonly assumed by Muslims, Christians and Jews that woman was responsible for man’s expulsion from paradise. This assumption is based on the story of what is generally referred to as the ‘fall of man’, as narrated in the first book of the Bible, namely, Genesis, Chapter 3.

There are three references to this incident in the Quran and these are as follows: “And We said: ‘O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in the garden, and eat freely thereof, both of you, whatever you may wish; but do not approach this one tree, lest you become wrongdoers’. But Satan caused them both to stumble therein, and thus brought about the loss of their erstwhile state. And so We said: ‘Down with you (and be henceforth) enemies unto one another; and on Earth you shall have your abode and your livelihood for a while!’ Thereupon Adam received words (of guidance) from his Sustainer, and He accepted his repentance; …(For although) We did say, ‘Down with you all from this (state)’, there shall, nonetheless, most certainly come unto you guidance from Me: and those who follow My guidance need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve.” (2: 35-39) The second reference reads: “And (as for thee), O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in this garden, and eat, both of you, whatever you may wish; but do not approach this one tree, lest you become evildoers. Thereupon Satan whispered unto the two with a view to making them conscious of their nakedness, of which (hitherto) they had been unaware; and he said: ‘Your Sustainer has but forbidden you this tree lest you two become angels, or lest you live forever’. And he swore unto them, ‘Verily, I am of those who wish you well indeed!’ — and thus he led them with deluding thoughts.

But as soon as the two had tasted (the fruit) of the tree, they became conscious of their nakedness; and they began to cover themselves with pieced-together leaves from the garden. And their Sustainer called unto them: ‘Did I not forbid that tree unto you and tell you, verily, Satan is your open foe?’ “The two replied: ‘O our Sustainer! We have sinned against ourselves — and unless Thou grant us forgiveness and bestow Thy mercy upon us, we shall most certainly be lost!’ Said He: ‘Down with you, (and be henceforth) enemies unto one anoth er, having on earth your abode and livelihood for a while: there shall you live’ — He added — ‘and there you shall die, and thence shall you be brought forth (on Resurrection Day)!’” (7: 19-25) Lastly, “We told the angels, ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam!’ — they all prostrated themselves, save Iblis, who refused (to do it); and thereupon We said: ‘O Adam! Verily this is a foe unto thee and thy wife: so let him not drive the two of you out of this garden and render thee unhappy’ …But Satan whispered unto him, saying: ‘O Adam! Shall I lead thee to the tree of life eternal, and (thus) to a kingdom that will never decay?’ And so the two ate (of the fruit) thereof: and thereupon they became conscious of their nakedness and began to cover themselves with pieced-together leaves from the garden. And (thus) did Adam disobey his Sustainer, and thus did he fall into grievous error.

“Thereafter, (however), his Sustainer elected him (for His grace), and accepted his repentance and bestowed His guidance upon him, saying: ‘Down with you all from this (state of innocence, and be henceforth) enemies unto one another! Nonetheless, there shall most certainly come unto you guidance from Me’; and he who follows My guidance will not go astray and neither will he be unhappy.” (20:115-123) An analysis of the cited Quranic passages shows that there is no ‘fall of man’. As pointed out by Allama Iqbal, “The Quranic legend of the fall has nothing to do with the first appearance of man on this planet. Its purpose is rather to indicate man’s rise from a primitive state of instinctive appetite to the conscious possession of a free self, capable of doubt and disobedience. The ‘fall’ does not mean any moral depravity; it is man’s transition from simple consciousness to the first flash of self-consciousness.

“…Nor does the Quran regard Earth as a torture-hall where an elementally wicked humanity is imprisoned for an original act of sin. Man’s first act of disobedience was also his first act of free choice; and that is why, according to the Quranic narration, Adam’s first transgression was forgiven.

“…A being whose movements are wholly determined like a machine cannot produce goodness. Freedom is thus a condition of goodness. But to permit the emergence of a finite ego who has the power to choose … is really to take a great risk; for the freedom to choose good involves also the freedom to choose what is the opposite of good. That God has taken this risk shows His immense faith in man; it is now for man to justify this faith.” ¦ The writer is professor emerita at the University of Louisville, US, and a scholar of Islam and Iqbal.(From Daily the “Dawn” with thanks)

(16)Evidence 6: Miracles of Muhammad

Apart from the greatest miracle given to him, the Quran, Prophet Muhammad performed many physical miracles witnessed by his contemporaries numbering in hundreds, and in some cases thousands.[1]  The miracle reports have reached us by a reliable and strong methods of transmission unmatched in world history.  It is as if the miracles were performed in front of our eyes.  The meticulous method of transmission is what convinces us that Muhammad indeed performed these great miracles with divine aid and, thus, we can believe him when he said, ‘I am God’s Messenger.’

Muhammad’s great miracles were witnessed by thousands of believers and skeptics, following which verses of the Quran were revealed mentioning the supernatural events.  The Quran made some miracles eternal by etching them in the conscious of the believers.  The ancient detractors would simply remain silent when these verses were recited.  Had these miracles not taken place, they would have seized the moment to scandalize it and belie Muhammad.  But rather, the opposite took place.  The believers grew more certain of the truth of Muhammad and the Quran.  The fact that the faithful grew stronger in their faith and the silence of the unbelievers and not denying their occurrence is acknowledgment from both that the miracles took place exactly as the Quran describes.

In this section we will discuss some of the physical miracles performed by Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him.
Miracles are from Divine Power

A miracle one of the factors which further strengthens the claim of a prophet of God Miracles should not be the soul essence of belief, as supernatural events can also take place by the use of magic and devils.  The truth of prophethood is clear and evident in the actual message brought, as God has instilled a capability, although limited, in humans to recognize the truth as it is, specifically in the matter of monotheism But in order to further strengthen the argument of Prophethood, God performed miracles at the hands of His Prophets from Moses, Jesus to Muhammad.  For this reason, God did not produce miracles upon the demand of the Meccans, but the Wise God gave Muhammad the miracles He desired at the time He choose:

“And they say, ‘We will not believe you until you break open for us from the ground a spring, or [until] you have a garden of date-palms  and grapes and make rivers gush forth within them in force [and abundance] or you make the heaven fall upon us in fragments as you have claimed or you bring God and the angels before [us] or you have a house of ornament [gold] or you ascend into the sky.  And [even then], we will not believe in your ascension until you bring down to us a book we may read.’  ‘Say, Exalted is my Lord!  Was I ever but a human messenger?’’’ (Quran 17:90-93)

The answer was:

“And nothing has prevented Us from sending [this message, like the earlier ones,] with miraculous signs [in its wake], save [Our knowledge] that the people of olden times [only too often] gave the lie to them: thus, We provided for [the tribe of] Thamud the she-camel as a visible sign, but they wronged her.  And never did We send those signs for any other purpose than to convey a warning.” (Quran 17:59)

When demanded ostensibly, God in His wisdom knew they would not believe, so He refused to show them miracles:

“Now they swear by God with their most solemn oaths that if a miracle were shown to them, they would indeed believe in this [divine writ].  Say: ‘Miracles are in the power of God alone.’  ‘And for all you know, even if one should be shown to them, they would not believe so long as We keep their hearts and their eyes turned [away from the truth], even as they did not believe in it in the first instance: and [so] We shall leave them in their overweening arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro.’” (Quran 6:109-110)

(17)Sexual Relations Between Husband & Wife

Date: 18 MAY 1996
Newsgroups: soc.religion.islam
Subject: Re: Sexual Relations Between Husband & Wife

XXXX wrote: Hello. As a recently married Muslim, I was hoping someone could refer me to sources which can guide me as to what is permissible in Islam between a man and his wife. I once heard of an Islamic book called “Perfumed Garden”? Is there such a publication? Or could someone suggest other sources. In particular, I needed to know what the five schools of thought advised on oral sex or fellatio. Please email or post responses. Thank you.


alssalaamu 3alaykum

May Allah bless you and your wife with his blessing and unite you in harmony and happiness.

The book you mentioned, “The Perfumed Garden”, was written in Tunisia in the 16th century A.D. by Cheikh ‘Omar bin Sidi en-Nefzawi. It is a sort of marriage manual written in a rather provocative and lewd style. Even the author himself acknowledges its lascivious nature by ending it with these words: “I have indeed committed a sin by writing this book. Forgive me O Thou to whom we call not in vain. O Allah, do not confound me for this on the Day of Judgment. And you, O Reader, I beg you to say ‘Amen’.” The book is an interesting historical and cultural oddity; it is not to be recommended as an educational manual for married couples.

The principles of conjugal love in Islam are few and uncomplicated.

1. Sexual relations are for the pleasure of both the husband and the wife and for the procreation of children. Sexual intercourse is not limited to vaginal penetration but includes other forms of sexual caressing, such as kissing and fondling of various kinds.

2. Nothing should be done that is offensive or harmful to either person. Each has a duty to be sexually available to the other, but neither has the right to disgust or injure the other.

3. With a few exceptions, the couple can engage in any activities that they like, in any manner and in any position. Allah rewards such activities as surely as he punishes sinful activities. The Qur’an says, “Women are your fields. Go then into your fields as you please.” (2:223)

4. It is forbidden to have vaginal intercourse while a woman is menstruating (Qur’an 2:222). According to the Sunnah of the Prophet (God’s grace and peace be upon him), a man and his menstruating wife can however give one another pleasure so long as the woman’s genitals are avoided.

5. There are ahadith that forbid anal intercourse and scholars generally agree that it is not permissible. However, in his tafsir (commentary) Tabaari (3d century A.H.) while forbidding sodomy, says that earlier authorities were divided on the question.

6. The Qur’an and the Sunnah are generally silent as to the various forms that sexual relations may take. Most authorities consider that it is up to the husband and wife in love and mutual respect to decide how to physically express their sexual desires.

7. What goes on in bedroom, is a private matter and should not be discussed or revealed to other persons unless there is some necessity, such as health or safety. Abu Hurairah narrates that the Prophet (pbuh) said this about people who reveal and discuss openly their sexual practices: “Do you know what those who do this are like? Those who do this are like a male and female devil who meet each other on the road and satisfy their desire while the people look on.”

Therefore, in Islam the husband and the wife choose their sexual activities according to the sure teaching of the Qur’an, in the light of the Sunnah as we are able to understand and appreciate it, in mutual respect for one another and knowing that the only witness to the expression of their desires will be Allah the Exalted, who will judge them according to their deeds and their heartfelt intentions.

The question of the lawfulness of oral-genital contact is difficult because there are many opinions. For some, it is forbidden. For others, tolerated. For some it is lawful. Some consider it to be lawful as long as the couple use such contacts as foreplay and conclude their love-making with vaginal intercourse.

I believe that this is a matter to be decided by the husband and wife together after seeking the guidance of Allah, who alone knows best.

Peace to all who seek God’s face.(From “Islam the Modern Religion” with thanks)

(18)The Believers should keep their gaze lower

Dear brothers and sisters subject of this article is that the believers should keep their gaze lower and not to cast it unlawfully over prohibited things. Islam lays stress on shyness. Modesty and purity in the eye sights, because if there is impudent and unfearness in it, then there will be adultery, nakedness in the society. So, the Holy Quran wants to shut down this door. It orders to the believers to keep their gaze lower and have controlle over their sexual passions. A sudden look casting at first over any ‘na mehram, is forgivable but to fix gaze again over someone unlawfully is prohibited. If the believers make their habit as not to cast their gaze over forbidden things, then they will become pious and piety ones. Allah Almighty Says in theHoly Quran,” Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest, that is purer for them. Lo! Allah is Aware of what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw there veils over their bosoms. (Al  Noor: 31) Allah Knows better what the hearts hide inmost and the cheating of eyes. The holy Prophet (PBUH) said that the ear, the eyes and the tongue also commit adultery. He explained  that the adultery of ears was to hear obscene and naked talking, and the adultery of eyes was to cast a wanton glance over someone, and the adultery of tongue was to talk about obscenity and nakedness. He also said that every eye fell in adultery and when a woman came out from home with elegance and applied perfume, the people talked about her that the woman was corrupt. (Al Mishkat).
The holy Prophet (PBUH) said that the people of seven categories would be under the shadow of the Empyrean of Allah when there would be no shadow save it. Among them there would be the believer that was invited by a beautiful, good birth and lineage woman to make sexual relations with her, but he denied to do so and told  her that he feared to God.
So, it is necessary to keep the gaze lower. Because if it not so, then it lays the foundation of adultery. For example, if a shepherded grazes his goats near a crop; then he should keep his flock away from it, lest a goat may shut her mouth in it. Same as of a believer cross the limits of Allah, he may be fall into sins. Islam orders the believing women to put on veil. The holy Quran says,” O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them (when they go abroad). That will be better, so that they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.”(Al Ahzab: 59)
In short, Islam is a deen of forbearance and piety. Shyness, modesty and keeping the gaze lower have a great importance. And it is, infact a real veil for believing women. If a woman hide her face in veil, but there is no purity in her eyesight, then it is in vein. So, it is necessary to be modest in real.


by Muhammad Rafique Etesame

An article published in an English daily(Pakistan) under above caption (21-5-2010) by Asghar Ali Engineer.In the article, the worthy writer gave his comments on a Fatwa issued by Darululoom Deoband revealing that the income of women working with men in the Government  or public offices, is ‘Haram’ (prohibited) for her family. He also criticized the Ulama saying that, “Most of the Ulama are totally text oriented, not problem oriented. Whatever text was produced by our predecessors under very different conditions in the past has become sacred for them and must be adhered to irrespective of the drastic changes that have since in society.
It is then necessary to examine his views in the light of Shariah so that the other profile of the issue may also be clear.
It is erroneous to say that the Ulama are only text-oriented and not problem- oriented. Because the Ulama are fully aware about the present age ‘fiqhi’ problems and ‘ijtehad’ is going on even now-a-days.”Majma-ul-Fiqhil-Islami” (Assembly of Islamic Jurisprudence) in Saudi Arabia, comprising the renounced Islamic Scholars, is working for this purpose. Like interest-free banking, wedding and divorce issues, rights of women in Islam and others personal issues etc.
However, the worthy writer is himself an Islamic scholar and also the head of the Center for Study of Secularism and Society. It is then his responsibility to do ‘Ijtihad’ on current Islamic issues through the secularism point of view, rather then criticizing on Ulama. Then it may be clear whether the people accept his research or not?
The worthy writer also lodged an objection on the viewpoint of Ulama that if the working women raises the veil from her face in a mixed gathering, she transforms into a ‘fitna’. So, this point of view should be examined in facts whether it is correct or not. Here is a report that supports it. According to it a resent survey reveals that there were seven hundred thousand, incidents of sexual violence on workingwomen took place in America for last few years. Whether the gang rape and kidnapping cases are except it. Red Indian women are also became the victims of sexual violence as 33 per cent. In the European society, maximum one woman is being victimized of sexual violence just after every two minutes. Even the small girls in educational institutes of age eight or ten years, being pregnant. It means that there are chances of sexual violence with women in the mix gathering.
Although this report is from European society, but it makes clear that whenever a woman will work in a mix gathering, then it creates a ‘fitna’ of sexual violence. So, Islam makes the husbands responsible for the maintenance of their wives as a whole and orders her to stay in the homes.
as the holy Quran reveals,” And stay in your houses, Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the Time of Ignorance. Be regular in prayers, and pay the poor-due, and obey Allah and His Messenger. (Al-Ahzab: 33)
Because woman is a light of home not an elegance of assembly. And if her husband is not able to do so, or passes away and she is compelled to come out from home and work with men then she should do it in Shari hudood, it makes her safe and sound. I ask the worthy writer whether he can give even a single example of any society where the women are not victimized of sexual violence. So, the views expressed in the ‘fatwa of fitna’ are exactly according to the teachings of Islam and to criticize over it is quite baseless.

O’Allah! The most merciful

O’Allah! The creator of all worlds, the creator of intellectual and beautiful human being, the provider of food and nutrition to each and every living thing on the earth and under the soil, the most merciful, the listener to every grief and the provider of relief, although I have been away from the worship, I am a Muslim, have committed sins, I have been the exercise board for the non-Muslims all over the world. My home in Palestine has been bulldozed, I am on footpaths, I am on roads, I am living miserable life in relief camps, every day I see killings of my dear and near ones, many a times I was compelled to eat flash of dogs and cats in Sabira and Shatila camps, my Qibla-e-Awwal (the Aqsa Mosque) has been in the control of Jews but I am unable to do anything. Iraq is my own country but I am not more than a prisoner in my own homeland. I don’t have liberty to spend life in peace. American terrorists are freely roaming around on the roads in my country. They kidnap Muslim women from villages and towns and later their bodies are found at footpaths and roundabouts.

Each and every stone and mountain in Kashmir is stained with my blood. The worshipers of idols have full liberty to indulge into activities of their desire. So, no Muslim man, woman, child and elderly person are protected against their oppression.

More than 1.6 million Muslims in Afghanistan have rendered sacrifice of their lives, a number of children have become orphan, old parents have lost their hope for their old age, women have lost their husbands, millions have lost their limbs and become crippled for life. Cities, towns and villages have become deserted. Job opportunities have diminished, business and trade activities have come to stand still. But, I never cared for any of such things. My aim was to see a real Islamic state. At last my desires come true and a real Muslim state appeared on the globe. Later, whatever happened, no one except you, knows well. Those who were the followers of Islam, who believed in the Kalima-e-Tauheed, extended their all-out support to the enemies of Islam and ruined the Islamic state turning the fast developing country into ruins. The building, which was established with the blood of Muslims, has been caved in, buried in the caves.

O’Allah! You know everything that is open or hidden. Where should I go to show my wound? Who should I tell my saga? Where should I go to shed my tears in grief? The living has been narrowed for me. Till yesterday I was a Mujahid. But, today I have been termed a terrorist. Those who are against the followers of Islam, the last Prophet, Muhammad, (), are hunting for me. They are combing the mountains, valleys, mosques, Madaris and every nook and corner. When I am caught, I am stripped off in chilled weather, I am dragged on rough fields with bar-fetters on. I am treated as I am not a human being or a living creature. I am subjected to a treatment meted out to a dead animal. I am subjected to severe torture. Sensitive parts of my body are burnt with cigarettes. They thrash me severely. When they become tired of torturing me, hand me over to other to continue with inhuman treatment. From the mountains of Afghanistan to the torture cells of Guantanamo, my horrible saga is written.

There are organizations for the protection of wildlife, there are bodies raising voice for the rights of dogs and other animals, but there is not a single organization around the globe that could raise voice against the atrocities meted out to me. There is no human rights organization, which could raise voice for my rights. What is this life that I don’t even have right to roam around independently in my homeland. There is no jail in the Muslim and non-Muslim world where I am not imprisoned. In jails I spend miserable days. My wounds while remaining without any cure, become fistula. But no one comes for my rescue. I die of thirst but nobody comes to give me a drop of water. I find no difference between Muslims and non-Muslim oppressors, for me all are same and cruel. There are many who believe in Islam, I begged for mercy before them on the name of Allah but they turned their face to other side with hatred. They spit on my face. Many times I tried to make them understand that we belong to the same religion and we are the offspring of one Adam and we believe in one last Prophet who rests in Medina, but instead of listening to my grievances, they subjected me to severe torture. O’Allah! Where that Ummah has gone which was the strongest shield of Islam against the non-Muslim nations. Which were the rescuers for the oppressed. Which was united at one platform and enemies used to stay away from them. Now is the situation that Muslims have been divided into small sects, groups. They live in different states and have different beliefs, different religions. They have different kingdoms and rules and working for their personal benefits. Muslims around the globe are no more thinking of taking collective efforts for the betterment and strength of Ummah. Muslims now are of the practice of finding friends from among the non-Muslims and enemies of Islam and they are forgetting their own brethren. They give priority to non-Muslims on the Muslims in many cases. They have soft corners for Jews, Christians and Hindus but for Muslims they have hatred in their hearts. O’Allah! Bless Muslims with wisdom and make them understand that non-Muslims are never the friends of Muslims. O’Allah! Turn my disgrace into my dignity and give me strength to brave such brutalities. O’Allah! Show right path to my rulers. Open their eyes to see the right and wrong. Make them true followers of Muhammad (). Save them from the slavery of Europe.

O’Allah! Bless me with able leadership. I have huge treasures of natural resources, I have petroleum products, mountains of gold, and so many other things besides we have brains and manpower, but we lack a leader who has ability to utilize all such natural resources in proper ways. O’Allah! We don’t have a courageous leader who would look into the eyes of enemies and challenge them for their wrong doings and atrocities against Muslims. O’Allah! I vow that I’ll not leave the world unless I have my heart filled with the love for Islam and Holy Prophet Muhammad (). O’Allah! Give me courage and strength against the evil. Aameen.